Nvq 4.3

Topics: Jean Piaget, Developmental psychology, Theory of cognitive development Pages: 5 (1307 words) Published: January 24, 2013

1.2 Analyse the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important

It is important that this is monitored closely and the distinction between sequence and rate is defined as it can help to distinguish if a child has Special, educational needs. If the sequence and rate of development are not followed it can help professionals to identify that a child might be presenting as having difficulties which could lead to SEN so it is important that this is identified as early as possible. A child that is not reaching there milestones can be identified through monitoring the sequence and rate of development and can then be offered a range of services that can support them with any additional need they may have.

1.3 Analyse the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the pattern normally expected

There are a large range of factors that may contribute towards a child or young person’s development not following the pattern normally expected some of the following reasons could be:

A child could have a disability - a disability may prevent a child from developing in one or more areas and may lead to them not reaching their developmental milestones.

Emotional impact – a child may not be interested in learning new skills or may be in an environment where they are not stimulated emotionally to enable their development to progress.

Physical reasons - developmental patterns may be affected by genetics.

Environmental factors - such as the home environment, how much stimulation a child gets at home, what resources and opportunities are available to a child to enable development.

Cultural factors – Different cultures can have differing opinions and attitudes towards children’s development and this could impact upon a child’s development. Some cultures for example the gypsy roman community do not like much intervention from services such as health etc so this could ultimately lead to an issues arising not being identified.

Social factors- all families are very different and function in different ways, some environments may be more suitable for a child to develop in while some could impair development.

Specific learning needs - difficulties at birth, disease

2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practises

Jean Piaget (1896–1980) focused on the cognitive-developmental theory that “views the child as actively constructing knowledge and cognitive development as taking place in stages” .According to his con-structivist theory, Piaget asserted that children pass through four distinct stages of development, including the sensor-imotor stage (birth to 2 years), preoperational stage (2 to 7 years), concrete operational stage (7 to 11), and formal operational stage (11 and beyond). Piaget believed that reasoning deepens in children as they grow, engagement in the physical and social world enhances development.

Freud –unconscious mind- he puts forward the ideas that childhood experiences impact & influence behaviour in later life as adults

B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) theory of behaviourism or operant conditioning theory, this is based on the premise that children's behaviour can be increased based on the presentation of reinforcers. Social learning theory, created by Albert Bandura (b. 1925), expands on operant conditioning by adding the idea that imitation or observational learning increases the chances that children will learn new behaviours. behaviourists believe that children's development is outside of their own influence, that it is shaped by the environment around them.

The ecological systems theory was originated by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) who believed that children developed “within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment” (Berk, 2000, p. 26). There are four systems that influence child development....
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