This provides general guidelines to help Improve and optimize an athlete’s knowledge of sports nutrition. In this booklet guide you through: 1) Nutritional requirements.
2) Components of a healthy diet.
3) The impact fast food has on the body.
5) Dietary intake requirements and how they are affected by an individual’s lifestyle. Now more than ever, athletes need accurate sports Nutrition information. Optimal nutrition is an integral part of optimal performance whilst and inadequate diet can be a athletes downfall. Introduction to sports nutrition:
For every physical activity, the body requires an energy source and the amount used depends on the duration and type of activity. Energy is measured in Calories and is acquired from food stored or eaten. Glycogen is the main source of fuel used by the muscles to enable you to undertake both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. If you train whilst having a low glycogen storage level, you will notice a decrease in optimal performance, and there can be side effects such as nausea and dizziness.
Page 1) Introduction to nutrition and front cover.
Page 2) Index.
Page 3) Nutritional Requirements.
Page 4) Components of a healthy and balanced diet.
Page 5) Hydration and the effects it has on performance.
What this book includes:
For me nutrition is the most vital part of an athlete’s lifestyle, its an athletes key to optimal performance. Nutrition is the nourishment the human body gets through the intake of food during digestion. Nutrition is split into 3 main parts Macronutrients are the energy providing nutrients of your diet. Micro Nutrients – They are Individual vitamin and mineral requirements that vary by age, sex, and state of health and physical activity level. 1) Macronutrients
Vitamins: Vitamin C
I am going to start this booklet off by talking to you about Macronutrients, which are the bodies preferred choice of energy, the body utilizes these main 3 sources of energy to fuel the body for exercise. The main 3 Macronutrients are Protein, carbohydrates and fats. The first Macronutrient I will guide you through is Protein.
Protein has many roles to play when it comes to nourishing the human body; its main role is the growth and repair of cells. Protein is what makes growth and building muscle possible. Protein also can be used as a fuel when needed. Protein comes in all different shapes and sizes the main source is meat products such as steak, poultry and fish however there are 4 main supplements if you are a vegetarian: 1. Whey Protein – found in milk when curdled.
2. Casein – milk curd & separated from whey.
3. Soy Protein – extracted from Soybeans.
4. Egg Protein – found in whole egg.
Yes the supplements above will provide you with your protein for the day, however unlike meat the main source of protein, these supplements carry only a certain number of essential amino acids. How much Protein does an athlete need?
Type of AthleteDaily Protein per kg body
Endurance1.2 – 1.4
Strength Power1.4 – 1.8
Fat Loss Programme1.6 – 2.0
Weight Gain Programme1.8 – 2.0
So for an example:
I weigh in at 80kg and when I’m out of season and looking to gain body weight. I would have to multiply my body weight (80kg) by 2 grams, which gives me 160 grams, which would be my total protein intake for one day.
Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients and the one needed in the largest amounts by the body. Between 45 and 65 percent of calories should come from carbs. The role of carbohydrates is to provide energy, as they are the body’s main source of fuel, needed for physical activity, brain function and operation of the organs. All the cells and tissues in your body need carbs, and they are also important for gastric health and waste elimination. Once in the body, carbohydrates are easily converted to fuel. There are three types of Carbohydrates:
Basic unit of carbs
Predominantly sugar based carbs:
Glucose – occurs naturally in nature
Fructose – sweetest of all the monosaccharides – fruits & honey Galactose – doesn’t occur naturally in nature. Forms milk sugar (lactose). Both fructose and galactose are broken down and converted to glucose to be used for energy metabolism. 2) Disaccharides:
Each disaccharide contains a Glucose molecule.
Sucrose: glucose plus fructose e.g. honey
Maltose: 2 glucose
Sucrose and maltose: e.g. sweets.
Starch – serves as the storage form of Carbs in plants. Fibre – non-starch, includes cellulose
Glycogen - few hundred – thousands of glucose molecules. Most of the Carbs is stored as glycogen in the body.
After absorption by the small intestine, glucose can be:
1) Used directly by the cell for energy
2) Stored as glycogen in the muscles
3) Converted to fat for energy storage.
Cause of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the insulin does not work properly, or both. It is caused by genetics and lifestyle factors and can happen in a person of any age. Eating a diet high in kilojoules, whether from fat or sugar, can cause you to become overweight, which increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
How many carbohydrates does an athlete need?
On average a athlete training all week should be aiming to take in about 400-600 grams of carbohydrates a day, and if you are trying to gain you could even push your carb intake to 70%. In the pyramid on the right it shows all different sources of carbohydrates, it also indicates the amounts by placing the bad refined carbs In smaller boxes and the main sources in larger boxes.
Fats provide us with energy (although much more slowly than CHO), our main source of energy at rest, keep our skin in good condition, regulate body temperature and protect vital organs. Extra fat is stored under the skin as Triglycerides. Which is extra-unneeded weight for sports people. During exercise triglycerides are broken down into glycerol and free fatty acids, which is how you burn off the so-called puppy fat. Fats are split into 2 main categories:
Saturated Fats: - Or what I like to call the stereotypical fat, my parents used to raise me in the background where all fats are bad, and that is because of the More readily found fats in animal products such as milk, cheese, meats, cream and butter. Generally found in solid form at room temperature.
Cholesterol content in these foods is quite high and this can cause an unhealthy amount to be present in body. Unsaturated Fats: -The good fats found in Fish and plant products such as corn, nuts and soya beans. Generally found in liquid form at room temperature.
Omega fats in fish
Avocado and nuts
High Cholesterol is something most people link to be the cause of fats, which is true. However it is subject to the own individuals diet and activity plans. Saturated fats are a cause of high cholesterol yet un saturated fats are a way of lowering cholesterol to so called super food avocado has even been said to collect and drain cholesterol from the blood stream lowering the chance of a heart attack. 1. BAD’ LDL (low density lipoproteins)-cholesterol can block up our arteries 2. GOOD’ HDL (high density lipoproteins)-cholesterol carries excess cholesterol away from our arteries and back to the liver, where it is broken down and recycled. It is important too balance out your daily intakes of these fats to avoid trauma in the future.
Is Fat needed in sport?
Endurance sports – Surplus fat can reduce speed and increase fatigue. (NO) Explosive sports - Non-functional weight. Slows you down & decreases mechanical efficiency. Muscle is useful weight, fat is not.( NO)
Weight matched sports – Boxing, judo. Greatest % of muscle and smallest % of fat has advantage. (No)
Overall I’d say fat is something athletes should avoid except If competing in sumo wrestling. How much fat does an athlete need?
Considering fats have such a bad name its hard to believe as athletes we still need it, its still a good source of slow realizing energy and can help lower cholesterol. Per day an average athlete should be taking in 55-65grams of fat a day
Micronutrients are made up of mainly vitamins and minerals and they are generally used to keep the body in health and maintain its strength. Vitamins are non-caloric chemicals that are needed by the body in only small quantities. They are an essential component of our diet because they are used in the production of energy, prevention of disease and metabolism. Vitamins are split into 2 categories:
1. Fat-soluble; Vitamins A, D, E and K:
Found in butter, dairy products, liver and oily fish.
If your body does not need fat-soluble vitamins immediately, then they are stored in the liver for future use
2. Water soluble; Vitamins B and C:
Found in fruits and vegetables.
Unlike fat-soluble vitamins, they are not stored so you must consume frequently. If your body has too many water-soluble vitamins, then they are removed when you go to the toilet.
How much vitamins do I need?
For healthy eaters, a varied, balanced diet will provide all of the vitamins your body needs, so supplements are not necessary. However there is a detailed amount of each that has been studied and like other foods is labelled as our RDA’s each vitamin has a different role in the body so you need different amounts of each. People also need different amounts depending on their age, sex, level of activity and their health. On the right is a detailed RDA list for vitamin and mineral intake per day. Minerals:
They are also non-caloric and are lifeless elements essential for our health. There are two types: 1. Macro-minerals – needed in large amounts. E.g. Calcium. 2. Trace elements – needed in very small amounts. E.g. Iron. Many minerals are dissolved in the body’s fluids called electrolytes which are commonly found in sports drinks which boost your bodies levels, Electrolytes are essential for healthy cells, nervous system and for muscle contraction. Minerals are lost through sweating so it is important as an athlete to replace what is lost. Examples of minerals and vitamins?
Potassium is used to aid proper muscle contraction. It affects all muscles of the body, including the heart, gastric muscles and the voluntary muscles used for walking and running. Potassium is found in dairy products, salmon, fruits, vegetables. Vitamins (vitamin c):
a) It is used to create collagen in the body, a protein that makes the skin, joints and bones strong. b) Vitamin C plays a role in healing wounds within the body. c) The body utilizes vitamin C in the immune system by maintaining activity of the white blood cells.
Components of a balanced diet and the 5 major food groups
A balanced diet contains 5 key nutrient groups that are required in appropriate amounts for health. These groups are outlined below: Fruits
The fruit group incorporates a wide range of fresh fruits, including dried, frozen and canned fruit, and 100 percent fruit juice, which tend to be particularly nutrient-dense. The amount of fruit you should consume each day depends on your age, gender and activity level. Active men of any age and active women through the age of 30 should get 2 cups of fruit per day. Get your 5 a day. Vegetables
The vegetable group comprises an array of fresh vegetables. The main group is divided into subgroups comprised of nutritionally similar foods, The purpose of these subgroups is to promote eating a wide variety of vegetables. Active women and men between the ages of 19 and 50 should consume 2 1/2 and 3 cups of vegetables per day. Grains
The grain group is comprised of two subgroups: whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains and their products, including brown rice, oats, muesli and whole-wheat pasta, tend to be significantly higher in fiber and protein than refined grain products, such as crackers, corn flakes, grits and traditional pasta. Men through the age of 30 need 8 ounce equivalents of grains per day, but men over 30 and under 50 require 7 ounce equivalents, and men over 50 only just 6 ounce equivalents of grains each day. Protein Foods
Meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, nuts, seeds, soy products and beans and peas make up the protein group. The USDA emphasizes choosing lean poultry and meat and consuming a variety of protein foods to enhance the overall nutritional quality of your diet. Men aged 19 to 30 need 6 1/2 ounce equivalents of protein each day. Through the age of 50, men require 6-ounce equivalents, Dairy
The dairy group is mostly comprised of dairy products that are high in calcium. All types of yogurt, most cheeses and all liquid milk products are part of the dairy group. The USDA advocates consuming low-fat or fat-free dairy foods to limit your intake of saturated fat. Active men and women of all ages should consume 3 cups of foods from the dairy group each day. Getting the right balance in your diet is key. I also can’t stress how important it is to get your diet on track and avoid trans fats especially fast food, which is only becoming more and more popular around the world, and although the effect is already upon us, we are still blind. “TAKEN FROM JAMIE OLIVERS SPEECH ON OBESITY”
Do our kids have a weight problem?
In the last decade, the number of school children who are overweight or obese has nearly doubled. One third of our kids are now too fat. One quarter of teenagers are already obese.
14% of boys and 17% of girls between the ages of two and 15 are overweight. 19% of boys and 18% of girls the same age are obese. How about adults?
Nearly one quarter, 24%, of adults are already obese.
Kids with fat parents are twice as likely to become obese.
Kids who are obese by the age of 12 are 85% more likely to remain obese into adult life. Bad habits
Fast food is the most commonly eaten by over 80% of kids are white bread, savory snacks, chips, biscuits, boiled/mashed/baked potatoes and chocolate confectionery.
Looking down that list you can clearly see the threat is upon us which is why knowledge has to be passed down so athletes like yourselves can go away and spread the word about how to maintain a balanced diet and why to avoid different foods.
Importance of Hydration
Water is an important nutrient for life because it helps regulate our temperature, lubricate our joints and transport nutrients throughout the body. Around 60% of our body weight is made up of water and it is vital to maintain that balance so that your body and mind can function correctly. How much do you need to drink?
Minimum you should be drinking 2.5litres a day and athletes should be drinking to maintain their weight, for example if after a game of rugby I lost 2kg of weight it would lost through dehydration therefore every kg lost you used drink an extra liter. A simple way to check that you are drinking enough fluid is to check the color of your urine. Hydrating when exercising
Staying hydrated is important for everyone, but athletes have an even greater need to maintain proper hydration. Performance can start to decline even with only 2% dehydration. During exercise, the physical effect of dehydration is that you get fatigued more easily, so every bit of effort feels harder and tougher. The mental effect is that you lose concentration, skill and accuracy. The combined effect is that you are going to end up in a situation where your performance will suffer. This can easily be avoided through effective hydration. As you can see Hydration and a balanced diet are both equally important, you must learn to balance out your daily intake to the amount of training you have done that day. I think it is very important to guide future athletes through the correct form of nutrition and hydration so they can maximize their performance at an older age. Hopefully you have learnt a lot from this booklet, and I hope the information passed onto you, will be continuously taught to the next generation of athletes.