Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes
November 30, 2012
Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes
There have been studies on the risk of type 2 diabetes and how the risk of getting type 2 diabetes can be successfully reduced by changing lifestyle habits (Tuomilehto et al, 2001). The most favorable dietary option for persons with diabetes has long been a subject of debate. Nutritionists have been trying to find a healthy eating plan that works for people with type 2 diabetes to use to lose weight. The one thing that they have come to agree about is that no one diet that works best for all diabetics. There have been numerous diet plans tried with only short term results; among those tried were low carbohydrate/high protein, low fat, vegan and several of the fad diets. What they discovered was that in the case of diabetics there is no one diet that fits every lifestyle; each person has to have a custom plan designed just for them. Some people have tried multiple diets and found little to no difference in weight loss. Other have tried these diets and found that preference of one over the others has helped them stick to the diet and be successful in weight loss. The three most popular diet plans are low carbohydrate, vegan, and low fat diets. There have been many studies conducted on diabetics using these plans and their effectiveness.
A low carbohydrate diet is a nutrition method that limits the intake of carbohydrates, such as- pasta, bread, potatoes and rice. This diet method is usually used to lose weight and reduce certain health risk such as heart attack, some cancers and type 2 diabetes. “Low carbohydrate diets have been called a variety of names, including ketogenic diets, high protein diets and high fat diets” (Volek &Westman, 2002; Adam-Perrot et al., 2006). Studies have not proven low-carbohydrate dies to be better or worse than low-fat diets, however, according to Davis (2009) the only difference was a greater boost in HDL cholesterol seen in patients following the low-carb diet (p.1147). Better cholesterol numbers help keep you heart healthy by controlling and slowing down the buildup of plaque in the arteries. Many people try the low carbohydrate diet because it is designed to limit both energy intake and available glucose, which can result in an increased fat oxidation to supply the energy needed to aid weight loss (Adam-Perrot et al, 2006). The majority of studies in people with type 2diabetes have included subjects taking a variety of glucose-lowering therapies, including metformin, thiazoladinediones, sulphonylurea and insulin. The studies that report changes in medication as a result of adopting a reduced carbohydrate diet have recorded either reduction or discontinuation of this medication (Gutierrez et al., 1998; Bodenet al., 2005; Yancy et al., 2005; Nielsen & Jonsson, 2006). Weight loss and no medication are the top priorities of people with type 2 diabetes.
One of the first things that people think about when trying to lose weight is reducing their fat intake. This is also the same for diabetics. There are many products and diet programs that cater to the low fat diet. Fat gets lots of the attention for many good reasons. Fat can raise cholesterol levels in the blood, increasing a person's risk for heart disease. A low fat diet is the opposite of a low-carb diet. With a low fat diet your carbohydrate intake is not monitored. In a low-fat diet the emphasis is maintaining a diet limited in fat and stressing the consumption of food higher in carbohydrates. According to American Dietetic Associate (2003) fat has twice as many calories per gram; fat has nine grams of calories whereas carbohydrates and proteins are only four calories per gram. The benefits of this diet, especially for a person battling type 2 diabetes, is the high amounts of fiber and water which keeps you full longer. This can promote the weight loss needed for...
References: American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: low fat diets. J Am Diet Assoc2003;103:748–65
Barnard, ND., Cohen, J., Jenkins, DJA., Turner-McGrievy, G., Gloede, Amber Green, and Ferdowsian , H. (2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. 29:1777–1783
David, NJ, Tomuta N, Schechter C, et al. Comparative Study of the effects of a 1-year dietary intervention of a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet on weight and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1147-1152.
Davis, N., Forbes, B., Wylie-Rosett, J. Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes. Mount Sina Journal of Medicine 76: 257-258, 2009
Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG et al (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344:1343–1350
Turner-McGrievy GM, Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Gloede L, Green A. (2008). Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Journal of the American Dietetic Association.108(10):1636-1645
Volek, J.S. & Westman, E.C. (2002) Very-low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets re
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