Module Code 5N2006
Plan of Action
In my assignment, I will discuss the following with regards to nutrition:- The Functions of food
The value of food types and factors which effect the energy requirements of individuals. I will examine the role of each type of fat and fatty acid with relation to health and effects of deficiency and excess intake of fat To examine the functions, sources, deference symptoms and effects of fat soluble and water soluble vitamins To examine the functions, source, deficiency symptoms of minerals To distinguish between essential and non essential amino acids To compare protein content of foods derived from plants and animal sources To discuss food labelling
To test foods for presence of fats and proteins
Functions of Food
Food is required by the body to enable it to perform four main functions:- Energy, Growth and repair, regulation and protection. With out these functions being provided for we would become ill and eventually die. Nutrients with in food can help aid some or all of these functions, nutrients are broken down into six different types, each with benefits to the body.
These are the main energy source for the brain, They are macromolecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. carbohydrates come in two main types complex and simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates and found in many starchy foods both natural and processed some examples are bananas, brown rice and wholemeal cereals, pastas and breads Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars and also exist in natural and refined forms, such as biscuits, Chocolates, honey brown and white cane sugar, prepared foods and sauces, soft drinks and snack bars and alcohol. This energy usually enters the food through sun shine by a process called photosynthesis, plants are able to produce sugars using water, gas from air and also the sun Fibre is also a carbohydrate but it doesn’t get broken down when digested by the body, instead it acts as a cleanser for your digestive system moving food through your body quickly absorbing excess fat and cholesterol and other harmful substances. When digested carbohydrates form glucose, which is then transported and used by the body for energy to keep going they also provide heat, when excess carbohydrates are digested they are stored as fatty deposits which insulate the body.
Proteins are large molecules containing hundreds of smaller units called amino acids which are referred to as the body’s building blocks. Amino acids contain Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The nitrogen with in the amino acids enables growth in the body to occur. When amino acid chains are broken down inside the body they help perform many functions including Growth of cells within hair, skin and blood
To Repair damaged cells
For the manufacture of enzymes and hormones which are essential for our bodies Producing heat and energy for the body
When carbohydrates are low with in the body the fats proteins are used to produce energy in the body Protein is an important substance found with in every cell of the human body, with the exception of water protein is the most abundant substance in your body. Proteins can be found in meat, poultry, sea food, dairy, eggs and many plant based foods.
Most foods contain some fat, it is in foods because both plants and animals use fats as the most economic way to store energy. In times of food storage fats stored in the body will be used for growth and development There are four main types of fats
Saturated fats which are mainly found in animal products i.e., meat, cheese, milk and eggs Mono unsaturated fats mainly found in olive oil, rapeseed oil peanuts and avocados Polyunsaturated fats found mainly in plant foods such as nuts seeds and vegetable oils, they can also be found in cold blooded sea foods like salmon, mackerel and herring Trans fats which can be natural or artificial and are mostly found in fast food, fried food and commercial baking. Natural trans fats are present in small amounts in milk and beef but in cheese there is a high concentration Fats are used for heat and energy, but also to protect our delicate organs and provide vitamins to the body. When fat is digested it is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids
Vitamins are essential for our bodies health, they are a group of organic compounds found in food, that are essential for growth and nutrition, they are only required in small quantities as the body cannot produce them. Vita comes from the Latin meaning life, vitamins are essential for our lives as they are vital nutrients. There are thirteen vitamins which can be divided into two types: Water soluble –vitamins C and all the B’s
Fat soluble- vitamins A,D, E and K
Water soluble vitamins are not able to be stored in the body so they are required to be consumed on a daily basis. Vitamin C
Vitamin C is also known as Ascorbic acid is found in fresh fruit green vegetables, peppers, citrus fruit, Rose hip syrup and sprouting seeds. It is required for good health, required by the skin, blood vessels and gums. Without this vitamin enzymes in the body can become dysfunctional causing symptoms of scurvy which may present itself as tiredness open sores on the body and loss of teeth, eventually resulting in death after jaundice and fever sets in. Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12
The B vitamins were once thought to be just a single vitamin much as vitamin C however research has shown that within the same foods there are several chemically distinct vitamins that can coexist. If all eight of the b vitamins are present this is called a vitamin B complex. The deficiency of vitamin B can cause night blindness, beri beri, it can also damage lining of the membrane for our lungs