Nursing Theory Analysis
Isaiah G. Wachira
American Sentinel University
N505 PE Theoretical Foundations
July 27, 2014
Nursing Theory Analysis
Nursing Theory Analysis – Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory
As nurses, it is important to have a basic understanding of the nursing practice by reflecting on various nursing theories and principles used across a variety of clinical settings. Nursing theories serve as the foundation or the guiding principle of the nursing profession. In this paper, I am going to discuss two theories – the Health Belief Model and the Social Cognitive Theory – and their relevance to the nursing practice.
Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model, commonly abbreviated as HBM, is a psychological model that predicts and explains health behaviors of individuals based on their beliefs and attitudes towards a particular health-related issue. This theory explains that an individual’s beliefs and attitudes about certain health problems, self-efficacy, barriers, and benefits to perceived action help create health-promoting behavior. It was created in the 1950s by US social psychologists Kegels, Rosenstock & Hochbaum in response to the unsuccessful nationwide tuberculosis screening program (Thurmond & Popkess-Vawter, 2003). The core statements and assumptions of the Health Belief Model is that a health-related action should be adhered because it could help prevent the likelihood of negative health conditions, such as chronic illnesses and infectious conditions. Once individuals acquire positive expectations over a specific health-promoting action, they can then avoid the occurrence of negative health conditions (Potter & Perry, 2006). Application of the Health Belief Model into practice
It is believed that the Health Belief Model is the main model used in the nursing process associated with health promotion and education, as well as illness prevention and protection. It has been utilized to describe various health protective activities within the primary, secondary, and tertiary level of health care. This framework serves as the basis for helping individuals engage in primary and secondary illness prevention. For instance, when nurses provide specific instructions to educate individuals that diseases could be prevented, this is part of the primary prevention that is associated with increasing the health-promoting activities of the population. If the nurse, on the other hand, educates an ill patient about how a certain disease should be treated, and the things to be avoided to prevent the disease from getting worse, this is part of the secondary level of prevention that is associated with preventing negative health conditions (Thurmond & Popkess-Vawter, 2003). Accordingly, by providing primary and secondary prevention, the patients’ perceived benefits will likely increase their anticipatory actions and lessen health risks associated with their conditions (Bandura, 2009). Another good example of a Health Belief Model applied into nursing practice, is when a nurse creates a discharge planning education for a patient diagnosed with heart illness. By letting the patient know before discharge the importance of undergoing regular monitoring and follow-up, as well as teaching the patient to reduce risk-taking behaviors, it could help increase a patient’s health awareness and possibly reduce readmissions in the future. But most importantly, the nurse must help the patient become accepting of the belief that discharge health educations could increase self-efficacy and improve the overall quality of life. It is important to note that the Health Belief Model is entirely reliant on the ability of the nurse to produce meaningful interventions to stimulate the cognitive sphere of the patients in terms of their health beliefs and culture (Potter & Perry, 2006). By understanding the patient’s personal values, culture, and family history the nurse could tentatively...
References: Bandura, A. (2009). SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: An Agentic Perspective. Annual Review of Psychology. 52(1): 3–26.
Miller, K. (2005). Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes, and Contexts. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Potter, P. & Perry, G. (2006). Fundamentals of nursing. St. Louis, MI: Elsevier Mosby.
Sandoval, J. (2008). “Social Cognitive Theory: A Framework for Understanding Learning in a Nursing Student-preceptor Relationship how nursing students learn by doing In the Presence of a practicing nurse. Southern Nursing Research Society. 19(21): 22-29.
Thurmond, V. & Popkess-Vawter, K. (2003). Examination of a middle range theory: Applying Astin’s input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model to web-based education. Online Journal of Nursing Inf. 7(2).
Please join StudyMode to read the full document