top-rated free essay

Nursing History

By moomoo2020 Sep 28, 2012 829 Words
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

DEFINITIONS

• History can be defined as:
“A study of events from the past leading up to the present time” • The study of history focuses on the chronology of events and their impact throughout time. • The development and evolution of the nursing profession is connected to historical influences throughout the ages, beginning in antiquity.

THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING NURSING HISTORY

1. Helping to understand the societal forces and issues facing the profession 2. Gaining an appreciation of the role the profession played in the healthcare system 3. Describing the influence of societal trends on the development of nursing as a profession 4. Identifying the contributions of selected leaders in the nursing profession

Nursing in Antiquity (ancient Times)

General Characteristics of the Period
1. The role of nursing care was assigned to different people such as females because of their caring role as mothers, and to medicine men, shamans and Attars 2. The earliest nurses learned their art through oral traditions passed from generation to generation and through the process of trial and error 3. The first organized groups of nurses were during the early Christian era 4. The nursing role was given to the deaconess which means a servant or helper

Highlights Of Health Care Practices in Antiquity

In Egypt

• Earliest medical records (3000 B.C.)
• 700 classified drugs
• Physicians were skilled in treating fractures, filling teeth and classifying drugs • Midwives practiced obstetrics
Palestine

• Developed Mosaic Code of organized method of disease prevention. • Talmudic regulations for slaughtering of animals, childbirth and hygiene. • Isolated people with communicable diseases.

Babylonia

• Gentlemen paid surgeons with silver coins for surgery
• Believed illness a punishment for sin and used incantations to purify body • Surgery was more advanced than internal medicine
• Practiced magic and superstition to treat evil spirits occupying ill bodies Assyria/ Assure (2300 B.C.)

• Believed in good and evil spirits and in many Gods
• Ill health was seen as a punishment for sin
Persia

• They had three types of Physicians
o Those who healed by the knife
o Those who healed with herbs
o Those who healed through exorcism

Greece

• Hippocrates was Grecian and became known as the “Father of Modern Medicine” to which the Hippocratic Oath attributed

• Believed disease always had a specific cause that could be discovered by examination and analysis

• They usually blamed disease on blood, phlegm, yellow or black bile.

• Built institutions to care for travellers, sick and injured called Xendochium (hospital)

Rome

• First public hospital in 380 B.C.

• Aristotle distinguished arteries from veins.

• Physicians were often slaves (Gladiato-physician)

• Prepared more than 600 preparations of herbal remedies

• Practiced advanced hygiene and sanitation

India

• Health practices were written in the “Vedas” around 1600 B.C. • Had systems of sanitation, bathrooms, public baths
• Emphasized hygiene, prevention of sickness, major and minor surgery, paediatric illness, childhood vaccinations, medicinal preparations, nervous and urinary system diseases. China

• Developed concept of “yin and yang”
• Used many drugs still used today such as Ephedrine
• Developed acupuncture skills still in practice today
• Studied circulation and developed examination method ( look, listen, ask, feel) • Dissection was performed before 200 B.C.
The Americas
• Health viewed as a balance between man, nature and the supernatural. • Cremation ceremonies, herbal treatments, and human sacrifice among healing practices • Medicine men called Shamans were responsible for curing ills of body and mind.

The influence of Christianity

Early Christian Orders of Women
• The deaconesses were the nursing care providers with charity and mercy • The deaconesses functioned as visiting nurses and social workers and were women of high social status • One of the most important deaconesses was Phoebe who lived about 55 A.D. and is remembered as the first visiting nurse and the first deaconess Early Christian Hospitals

• The bishops provided a place of shelter and refuge by opening their own homes to the sick • They only provided shelter, food, and nursing care, but little medical care was available • Hygienic conditions were poor

• Social services were not provided nor were doctors available in these early Christian hospitals. • Around 330 A.D. a large hospital was founded by Emperor Constantine the Great Early Christian Nursing Leaders

• Hospital-type home was known as a hospis providing care and shelter for pilgrimages • In the middle of the fourth century some women of Roman nobility converted their spacious homes into hospices or hospitals • Marcella turned her home into a convent and become known as the "mother of nuns." • Fabiola built the first general hospital in Rome about 380 A.D. • Paula considered the most learned woman of this period, entered Marcella's convent and cared for the sick Monastic Medicine and Nursing

• After the end of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. Europe was divided into many kingdoms • Religious groups were taking care of the sick as part of their duties • Nursing duties were performed by monks and nuns

• Medicine practiced by Monks with little scientific basis • Emphasis was placed on comforting the sick and the ill by recitation of prayers for saintly interventions

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • History of Nursing

    ...The history of nursing research begins with Florence Nightingale. In fact, it is nursing research that governs and determines the elements of the nursing practice in general. Great care, detail, and educational study comprises nursing research. When a nurse makes a medical decision, it is believed that he or she will make judgments that are supp...

    Read More
  • nur443 r3 history of nursing worksheet

    ...University of Phoenix Material History of Nursing Research Worksheet There have been many influential publications, agencies, and people in the field of nursing research. Write 1–3 sentences in each cell of the table below to describe the importance, goal, or influence of each item. Publications First publication date and importance: Nu...

    Read More
  • History of Nursing and Its Time Line

    ...The discipline or practice of nursing has developed over time and many nursing theorists contributed to the professional practice as we know it today .Theory ,research and applications to clinical practice are symbiotic as new concepts ,practices and empirical data emerge professional practice changes or evolves. During th...

    Read More
  • Nursing

    ...The field of nursing is very broad. With a degree in nursing, someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the...

    Read More
  • Nursing

    ...NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nur...

    Read More
  • Professional Nursing Philosophy

    ... The Call to Nursing Michelle Stuart, RN The University of Texas at Arlington In partial fulfillment of the requirements of N3645 Transition to Professional Nursing Mary Wise, RN, MSN November 18, 2012 Online RN-BSN Introduction After seventeen years in the nursing profession I realize each day is a learning exper...

    Read More
  • Nursing: Medicine and Health Care

    ...advocacy for hospice patients. Provision 7 of the ANA code of ethics mandates for nurses to participate in advancement of the profession to continue to educate themselves and to contribute to practice, administration, and knowledge development. Nurses must also help the profession to advance in active involvement in nursing and in health care...

    Read More
  • Nursing Rounds

    ...Nursing rounds are given separate names according to thepurpose they serve .a)Information giving rounds :It is used to acquaint the staff with all patients on the wardor division .b)Instructional rounds :Here the nurse is expected to read the charts and come torounds with basic information in mind .c)Problem solving rounds: This is to help the n...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.