Topics: Nursing, Nursing specialties, Florence Nightingale Pages: 13 (6312 words) Published: October 30, 2014

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has come to shape the historic public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurses are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. In the U.S. (and increasingly the United Kingdom), advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of an interdisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals. Prior to the 17th century[edit] 1-500 AD (approximately)- Nursing care mostly included hygiene and comfort needs of persons and families. Religious organizations were the provided carers.[1] 55 AD - Phoebe is nursing histories most noted deaconess.[2] 300 - Entry of women into nursing (Crisp & Taylor, 2009)[3] 380 AD - The first general hospital is established in Rome by Fabiola.[4] 17th century[edit]

The Reformation - The 17th century was the time of the Reformation when the breakdown of religious orders meant that monasteries, hospitals and nursing care facilities were closed in most Protestant areas.[5] 1633 Sisters of Charity founded.[6]

St. Louise de Marillac

Sisters of Charity1633 – The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac.[7] The community would not remain in a convent, but would nurse the poor in their homes, "having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish church, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital."[8] 1645 – Jeanne Mance establishes North America's first hospital, l'Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. 1654 and 1656 – Sisters of Charity care for the wounded on the battlefields at Sedan and Arras in France. 1660 – Over 40 houses of the Sisters of Charity exist in France and several in other countries; the sick poor are helped in their own dwellings in 26 parishes in Paris. 17th-18th century were considered the "age of reason". A lot of myths were contradicted by scientific fact (Daly et al.,2010)[9] 19th century[edit]

1835 Nursing Society of Philadelphia
1850 instructional school for nurses opened by NSP--
1853 Crimean war
1854 Nightingale appointed as the Superintendent of Nursing Staff 1856 A charitable organisation known as the "Nightingale Fund for Nursing" was founded in Britain, to commemorate Nightingale's work in the Crimean War (Daly,Speedy & Jackson (2010)[10] 1856 The Melbourne Lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases peculiar to Women and Children established. Speedy, S.& Jackson, D.(2010).Contexts of Nursing Chatswood,Australia 1861–1865 The Civil war, American Army nurses corps

1872, 73 formal nursing training programs were established,...

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