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NUCLEAR ENERGY AND SAFETY Consumption of energy is increasing nowadays so nuclear energy has very importance for energy needs. Nuclear energy is produced naturally and in man-made operations under human control and it is a thriving global industry. A total of 435 nuclear power plants are operating around the world in 30 countries. Also , nuclear energy has some advantages
Nuclear energy has the lowest impact than fossil fuel energy on environment because nuclear plants don 't emit harmful gases and require a relatively small area for production.
If mistakes don’t occur , there are no significant adverse effects to water , land and air resources . However , nuclear energy is so dangerous when accidents occur in nuclear plant ,problem of storing nuclear wastes occur and nuclear power contributes to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. For all these reasons , nuclear energy is a safe source of energy.

There are many reasons that show nuclear energy is more dangerous than conventional energy. First reason is nuclear accidents. When something goes wrong , nuclear accident can occurs. Four major nuclear accident occurred in the world. (Featherstone ) For example; the world 's worst nuclear power accident occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in the Ukraine on April 25, 1986. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to the radiation. Several dozen died within a few days. In the years to come, thousands more may die of cancers induced by the radiation. Another accident is Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011. An earthquake and tsunami caused Fukushima accident in Japan. The potential danger from a nuclear accident is exposure to radiation. Exposure could result from the release of radioactive material from a nuclear plant into the environment. ( Nagataki ) Based on studies on atomic bomb survivors, it is accepted that there is a linear increase in the risk of cancer with the increase of radiation dose. To conclude, these informations help to show how nuclear accidents create hazards . One of the more problematic effects of nuclear technology is the very complex task of safely managing long-lived, highly radioactive wastes. (Macfarlane) And in the case of nuclear power, most of these wastes are radioactive. This waste can be divided into two categories : high level waste and low level waste .Some very low level nuclear wastes can be stored and then disposed of in landfill-type settings. Other nuclear waste must remain sequestered for a few hundred years in specially engineered subsurface facilities because it is very toxic to the environment . And storing so much waste is a major technological challenge .For example ; High-level waste require disposal hundreds of meters under the Earth 's surface.It is very difficult process because to need a long time for the destruction of waste and the cost of storing is very high. There are nuclear waste problem in many countries. For example ; (Macklin ) Hanford’s double-shelled tanks contain nuclear and chemical waste left over from World War II and Cold War-era plutonium production. The Hanford site currently stores 56 million gallons of radioactive toxic waste. Solving the problem of nuclear waste is a difficult process and many countries don’t solve problem of nuclear waste like Hanford site. Thus , nuclear energy is not a good choice for energy needs.

Nuclear power also create nuclear weapons which are the most dangerous weapons on earth . After the first atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima , many countries begin to create nuclear weapons.( Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists ) For example ; North Korea made recent test of a nuclear weapon, Iran has nuclear ambitions , U.S. has a renewed the military utility of nuclear weapons.( Langmore ) According to the NPT ,nuclear armed five states are U.S. , Russia, England, France and China. And nuclear weapons continues to spread between countries. (Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists )Effect of nuclear weapons can be very destructive. For example ; the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. In that relatively small nuclear explosion, 100,000 people were killed and a city destroyed; .50 of today 's nuclear weapons could kill 200 million people. In short , nuclear energy can be very dangerous for the natural environment than conventional energy because of nuclear weapons. Nuclear power has been presented as providing net environmental benefits. Specifically, nuclear power makes no contribution to global warming through the emission of carbon dioxide. Nuclear power also produces no notable sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, or particulates. When nuclear power is produced, nothing is burned in a conventional sense. Heat is produced through nuclear fission, not oxidation. There are no significant effects to air resources but to use conventional energy causes global warming. In the last 150 years , the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere increased at 116% with to use fossil fuel energy and this is reason of global warming. (Doğan, S. 36-52) Nuclear power also provides water quality and aquatic life conservation. .( Ramon , p39-48) Water discharged from a nuclear power plant contains no harmful pollutants. It is a clean energy alternative that is already used to provide water and electricity. All of reasons show nuclear energy has a low impact on the environment compared to fossil fuels.

Getting the energy we need affects our environment in many different ways. Some energy sources have a greater impact than others. In some energy sources , nuclear energy is non-renewable source that has gained popularity in the last few years and is more efficient energy source than fossil fuel. However ,it is not safer than fossil fuel because it creates many hazards. For example ; it causes nuclear accident , creates nuclear wastes and nuclear weapons. Fossil fuel is not an excellent source of energy but it is safer than nuclear energy for environment. Countries don’t choose nuclear energy because it can create very big hazards.

Works Cited
Castaneda, Christopher J. "Natural Disasters In The Making: Fossil Fuels, Humanity, And The Environment." OAH Magazine Of History 25.4 (2011): 21-25. History Reference Center. Web. 21 May 2013

Doğan, Mesut; İstanbul Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi, Coğrafya Bölümü, İstanbul, Türkiye. "Enerji Kullanımının Coğrafi Çevre Üzerindeki Etkileri." Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi 23 (2010): 36. ULAKBİM Ulusal Veri Dergisi Tabanları (UVT) ULAKBIM Turkish National Databases. Web. 21 May 2013.

Featherstone S. CHERNOBYL NOW. Popular Science [serial on the Internet]. (2012, July), [cited May 14, 2013]; 281(1): 58. Available from: MasterFILE Complete.

It Is 5 Minutes To Midnight. (Cover Story)." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 63.1 (2007): 66-71. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 May 2013.

Langmore, John. "Pulling Back From The Nuclear Precipice." Eureka Street 18.4 (2008): 27- . 28. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 May 2013

Nagataki, Shigenobu. "Latest Knowledge On Radiological Effects: Radiation Health Effects Of Atomic Bomb Explosions And Nuclear Power Plant Accidents." 保健物理 45.4 (2010): 370-378. J-STAGE. Web. 14 May 2013.

Macfarlane, Allison. "It’S 2050: Do You Know Where Your Nuclear Waste Is?." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 67.4 (2011): 30-36. Environment Complete. Web. 20 May 2013

Macklin, Philip P. "Environmental Hazards Of Nuclear Wastes." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 30.4 (1974): 36. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 20 May 2013.

Ramon, Ramirez, et al. "Alternatives Of Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Power." Nuclear Engineering & Design 245.(2012): 39-48. Applied Science & Technology Source. Web. 21 May 2013

Cited: Castaneda, Christopher J. "Natural Disasters In The Making: Fossil Fuels, Humanity, And The Environment." OAH Magazine Of History 25.4 (2011): 21-25 Türkiye. "Enerji Kullanımının Coğrafi Çevre Üzerindeki Etkileri." Marmara Coğrafya Dergisi 23 (2010): 36 Featherstone S. CHERNOBYL NOW. Popular Science [serial on the Internet]. (2012, July), [cited May 14, 2013]; 281(1): 58 It Is 5 Minutes To Midnight. (Cover Story)." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 63.1 (2007): 66-71 Langmore, John. "Pulling Back From The Nuclear Precipice." Eureka Street 18.4 (2008): 27- . 28. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 May 2013 Nagataki, Shigenobu Effects Of Atomic Bomb Explosions And Nuclear Power Plant Accidents." 保健物理 45.4 (2010): 370-378 Macfarlane, Allison. "It’S 2050: Do You Know Where Your Nuclear Waste Is?." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 67.4 (2011): 30-36 Macklin, Philip P. "Environmental Hazards Of Nuclear Wastes." Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists 30.4 (1974): 36 Ramon, Ramirez, et al. "Alternatives Of Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Power." Nuclear Engineering & Design 245.(2012): 39-48

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