Topic IV: Infection/Wound
Table 31-2 Nosocomial Infections
Site Most common Microorganisms Causes
Urinary Tract Escherichia coli, Enterococcus species.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Improper catheterization technique, contamination of closed drainage system, inadequate hand cleansing
Surgical sites Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA). Enterococcus species (including VRE). Pseudomonas aeruginosa Inadequate hand cleansing, improper dressing change technique
Bloodstream Coagulase-negative. Staphylococci. Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus species Inadequate hand cleansing, improper intravenous fluid, tubing, & site care technique
Pneumonia Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Enterobacter species Inadequate hand cleansing, …show more content…
Etiologic agent (microorganisms) -Ensure that articles are correctly cleaned & disinfected or sterilized before use
-Educate pts & support persons about appropriate methods to clean, disinfect, & sterilize articles -Correct cleaning, disinfecting, & sterilizing reduces or eliminates microorganisms
-Knowledge of ways to reduce or eliminate microorganisms reduces numbers of microorganisms present & likelihood of transmission
Reservoir (source) -Change dressings & bandages when they are wet or soiled
-Assist pts to carry out appropriate skin & oral hygiene
-Dispose of damp, soiled linens appropriately
-Dispose of feces & urine in appropriate receptacles
-Ensure that all fluid containers, such as bedside water jugs & suction & drainage bottles, are covered or capped
-Empty suction & drainage bottles at the end of each shift or before they become full, or according to agency policy -Moist dressings are ideal environments for microorganisms to grow & multiply
-Hygienic measures reduce the numbers of resident & transient microorganisms & the likelihood of infection
-Damp, soiled linens harbor more microorganisms than dry linens
-Urine & feces in particular contain many …show more content…
Wear a clean, nonserile gown if pt care is likely to result in splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions. The gown is intended to protect clothing.
Remove a soiled gown carefully to avoid the transfer of microorganisms to others (e.g. pts or other health care workers).
Cleanse hands after removing gown.
Handle pt care equipment that is soiled c blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions carefully to prevent transfer of microorganisms to others & to environment.
Make sure reusable equipment is cleaned & reprocessed correctly
Dispose of single-use equipment correctly.
Handle, transport, & process linen that is soiled c blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions in a manner to prevent contamination of clothing & transfer of microorganisms to others & to environment.
Prevent injuries from used scalpels, needles, or other equipment, & place in puncture-resistant container.
Airborne Precautions-Use standard precautions as well as