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It enables communication between the cell membrane, the nucleus and the environment. Carries ribosomes that are responsible for the production of proteins (rough). Synthesis lipids from fatty acids and glycerol and transports these to the Golgi body (smooth).
Ribosomes – This binds to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and to the mRNA. It also enables translation of mRNA to produce proteins.
Golgi apparatus – Receives proteins from the ribosomes via endoplasmic reticulum and chemically modifies them for export (particularly in secreting cells). Produces vesicles to transport the modified proteins to the cell membrane for release. It receives and modifies lipids from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell membrane. It also produces lysosomes containing digestive enzymes.
Mitochondria – complete the oxidation of glucose to release energy. It traps the energy released to form ATP, which is used to power the metabolic functions of the cells.
Cilia – this transports mucus and other materials that may stuck in them to the exterior by continuous rhythmic …show more content…
The size of the surface must also be large enough to allow sufficient molecules to be transported to accommodate the metabolic processes in cell. For this reason, the surface area to volume ratio for any cell is critical. Size is also important in terms of width and length of a surface carrying out transport of materials. For example; the surface area of single-called alveoli in a person’s lungs, if spread out flat on a surface, would total the area of a football pitch.
Distance – Distance is the same as size, any disease that affects the distance reduces the transportation process. For example; dissolves gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveolar/capillary interface with ease in a healthy person. A person with pneumonia has extra fluid in the alveoli, resulting in slower gaseous exchange and therefore a lack of oxygen. Diffusion can distribute molecules quickly over a short distance but is very slow over more than a few centimetres.
Temperature – Increasing temperature will also increase kinetic energy, therefore molecules will move faster in diffusion and osmosis. The average speed of molecules depends on temperature and the mass of