The resources that should be maintained carefully are
a. Mainframes: memory and CPU resources, storage, network bandwidth.
b. Workstations: memory and CPU resources
c. Handheld computers: power consumption, memory resources.
A network computer totally depends on a centralized computer for most of its services which it performs. A network computer can therefore have a minimum use of operating system to manage its resources. But a personal computer has to be capable of providing all of the required functionality in a standalone manner without relying on a centralized manner. Which require high administrative cost and where sharing leads to more efficient use of resources are precisely those settings where network computers are preferred than the traditional personal computers.
An interrupt is a hardware-generated change-of-flow within the system. An interrupt handler is send to deal with the cause of the interrupt, control is …show more content…
System calls are used whenever a program needs to access a restricted resource.
The purpose of system programs is that system programs can be thought of as bundles of useful system calls. They provide basic functionality to users so that users do not need to write their own programs to solve common problems.
The three general methods for passing parameters to the operating system
1) Pass parameters using registers (directly).
2) Store the parameters in a table in memory and the table address is passed in a register to the OS.
3) Push (store) the parameters onto a stack (by the program) and "pop" off by the Operating System.
The five major activities of an operating system with regard to file management are
1. File creation and deletion.
2. Directory creation and deletion.
3. Primitives for file/directory manipulation.
4. Mapping files onto secondary storage.
5. Backup files on stable state.