Notre dame

Topics: Gothic architecture, Notre Dame de Paris, 2nd millennium Pages: 10 (3324 words) Published: March 20, 2014
INTRODUCTION
Notre-Dame de Paris French for "Our Lady of Paris", also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a historic Catholic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture and among the largest and most well-known church buildings in the world. The naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlier Romanesque architecture. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame is the parish that contains the cathedra, or official chair, of the archbishop of Paris, currently Cardinal André Vingt-Trois. The cathedral treasury is notable for its reliquary which houses some of Catholicism's most important first-class relics including the purported Crown of Thorns, a fragment of theTrue Cross, and one of the Holy Nails. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the radical phase of the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. An extensive restoration supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845. A project of further restoration and maintenance began in 1991. Notre-Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress(arched exterior supports). The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave but after the construction began, the thinner walls (popularized in the Gothic style) grew ever higher and stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral's architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued the pattern. Many small individually crafted statues were placed around the outside to serve as column supports and water spouts. Among these are the famous gargoyles, designed for water run-off, and chimeras. The statues were originally colored as was most of the exterior. The paint has worn off, but the gray stone was once covered with vivid colors. The cathedral was essentially complete by 1345. The cathedral has a narrow climb of 387 steps at the top of several spiral staircases; along the climb it is possible to view its most famous bell and its gargoyles in close quarters, as well as having a spectacular view across Paris when reaching the top. The design of St. Peter's Anglican Cathedral in Adelaide, Australia was inspired by Notre-Dame de Paris.

NOTRE-DAME CATHEDRAL HISTORY
Notre-dame that means “our lady” is dedicated to Mary, mother of god and is one of the most visited and notable monuments in Europe. There are 37 representations of Mary in the cathedral. The cathedral is about 850 years old and is located on the small island in the middle of Paris surrounded by the Seine called Ile de la Cité. The construction started with the first stone being laid 1163 by Maurice de sully and king Louis VII encouraged the big project, it was completed 1345, with other words the construction of the cathedral took about 200 years to finish. Notre-dame has had a long and certainty interesting history, at one point 1431 the English king Henry VI was crowned inside the cathedral. Notre-dame has witnessed some great events in French history 80 kings, two emperors, 5 republics and two world wars. Before crusaders went on “holy-wars” the used to pray at the site of the cathedral for Mary to protect them during the war. Some parts of the Church was destroyed during the 17th century and some parts were found in 1970 in the “latin quarters” almost 200 years later, intact. 1786 geographers decided that all distances in France should be measured from Notre-dame. During the revolution the church was used as an storage for food and stable for horses. During the 17th century the Cathedral was in so bad shape it was nearly demolished, but Napoleon decided to reconstruct and rebuild the Cathedral and was later crowned emperor of France 1804 by...
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