empirical evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, and measurement
psychology the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.
critical thinking the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote
assumptions beliefs that are taken for granted
bias assumption or beliefs that keeps us from considering the evidence fairly
argument by anecdote generalizing from a personal experience or from a few examples to everyone
phrenology the now-discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull
structuralism an early pyschological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. William Wundt, hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements. Asked what happened
functionalism an early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose and consciousness, emphasized the function or purpose of behavior as opposed to its analysis and description. William James, ask how and why.
psychoanalysis a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally formulated by Sigmund Frued, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
biological perspective a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts
evolutionary psychology a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior
learning perspective a psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories
cognitie perspective a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
sociocultural perspective a pyschological approach that emphasizes social and culture influences on behavior
psychodynamic perspective a psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy
humanist psychology a psychological approach that emphasizes free will, personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential
basic psychology the study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application
applied psychology the study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings
experimental psychologists conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and congition.
education psychologists study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve education systems. Their interests range from the application of findings on memory and thinking to the use of rewards to encourage achievement
developmental psychologists study how people grow and change over time physically, mentally, and socially. some specalize in childhood issues; others study adolescence, young adulthood, the middle years, or old age.
industrial/organizational psychologists study behavior in the workplace. they are concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation, productivity, job stress, personal selection, marketing strategies, equipment design, and other issues
psychometric psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality. Nearly all of us have had first hand experience with one or more of these...
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