Empirical Research –Sociologists use empirical research in order to learn about human life -controlled and systematic observation –follows scientific methods
Types of research –
1. Quantitative research-based on numerical data that is examined using statistics
2. Qualitative research – based in non-numerical information (text, written, words, symbols, speech) that describes people, actions or events in social life.
1.series of questions, each asked the same way
2.paper or verbal
3.Large numbers of people representative sample
4.Typically analyzed using statistics
Ethnography- Observations of people in their natural environments
Interviews-Specific questions about a particular topic
Content Analysis-Analysis of text/visual Data
Historical Analysis – Analyze connections among events
Experiments/Audit studies –Designed to elicit sort of behavior under controlled circumstances.
What is Race/Ethnicity?
A socially defined group of people who are generally considered to be physically distinct in some ways such as skin color, hair texture or facial features and are considered by themselves or by others to be a distinct group.
What is ethnicity?
The sharing of a common ancestry, history and/or culture of a group (ray 2009)
Defined by self or others (social)
Less linked to physical characteristics
1. Features and characteristics are distributed in a continuous fashion
The differences between us?
Overlap in features /no concordance =little consistency in appearance
Migration and genetic diversity
2. Our concept of race has shifted over time (and it still does)
History of Racial Classification
Ancient historical evidence doesn’t suggest the presence of a racial concept.
Curse of Ham argument has faced contemporary rejection
Culturally –based prejudice
Hippocrates and Aristotle –Environment and climate