Empirical Research –Sociologists use empirical research in order to learn about human life -controlled and systematic observation –follows scientific methods Types of research –
1. Quantitative research-based on numerical data that is examined using statistics 2. Qualitative research – based in non-numerical information (text, written, words, symbols, speech) that describes people, actions or events in social life. Quantitative Research
1.series of questions, each asked the same way
2.paper or verbal
3.Large numbers of people representative sample
4.Typically analyzed using statistics
Ethnography- Observations of people in their natural environments Interviews-Specific questions about a particular topic
Content Analysis-Analysis of text/visual Data
Historical Analysis – Analyze connections among events
Experiments/Audit studies –Designed to elicit sort of behavior under controlled circumstances.
What is Race/Ethnicity?
A socially defined group of people who are generally considered to be physically distinct in some ways such as skin color, hair texture or facial features and are considered by themselves or by others to be a distinct group. Physical component
What is ethnicity?
The sharing of a common ancestry, history and/or culture of a group (ray 2009) Defined by self or others (social)
Less linked to physical characteristics
1. Features and characteristics are distributed in a continuous fashion The differences between us?
Overlap in features /no concordance =little consistency in appearance Migration and genetic diversity
2. Our concept of race has shifted over time (and it still does)
History of Racial Classification
Ancient historical evidence doesn’t suggest the presence of a racial concept. Hebrew
Curse of Ham argument has faced contemporary rejection
Culturally –based prejudice
Hippocrates and Aristotle –Environment and climate
Idea of racial groups grew with slavery
Served as justification
Throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, scientist disagreed on racial categories. How many categories
How to divide the groups (skin, Culture? Nose? Hair?)
Ideas about race shifted with modern science
Eugenics helped solidify racial differences into laws/policies
Race will continue to change: Multiracial Identity
Increase in the number of people who identify as multicultural Interracial relationships
Willingness to report multiracial background
Changes in Census categories
Shift away from assumptions that people can only be from one racial group Identities and Race
What is identity?
Self definition of a person or a group
People constitute a group as long as they regard themselves as alike and society regards them as a distinct group. How do we learn identities
We are socialized to learn how others see us
Process of learning
Agents of socialization are the entities that teach us norms Family
What do identities “do “ for us?
Shape what is considered important information
Provides people with a way to communicate with us
Influence expectations of others
Haiti and other Dominican Republic: an Island divided
1. What divides the 2 countries? –
River divides, language, time zone, music, cultural aspect, colonies of different countries? 2. How does the relationship between the people of Haiti and the Dominican Republic play a role in shaping racial/ethnic identities? 3. What role does history (including historical figures) play in shaping Dominican identity? Spanish roots
What is a stereotype? What is Prejudice?
Stereotypes are “overgeneralized characterizations /beliefs about a group”(Pettigrew) Pictures in our heads about particular groups that are shared. Help to support prejudiced views
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