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NOTES Personality & Values

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Personality can be thought of as a sum of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.
Personality traits (особливість)
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior (shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy etc.).
1.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - 100 questions personality test.
Classification:
Extrovert vs. Introvert
Sensing vs. Intuitive (practical, prefer routine and order vs. unconscious processes, look at the big picture)
Thinking vs. Feeling (reason and logic when handling problem vs. personal values and emotions)
Judging vs. Perceiving (control, structure, order vs. flexibility, spontaneity)
Classification is then combined into 16 personality types.
MBTI tend to be unrelated to job performance.
2.The Big Five Model
Factors:
Extroversion (extravert – introvert)
Agreeableness (adapter – challenger): cooperative, warm, trusting vs. cold, disagreeable, antagonistic.
Conscientiousness – добросовісність (focused – flexible): responsible, organized vs. unreliable, distracted, disorganized
Emotional stability (reactive – resilient - життєрадісний): nervous, anxious, depressed vs. calm, self-confident, secure
Openness to experience (explorer – preserver): creative, curious, sensitive vs. conventional
There is a relationship between these personality dimensions and job performance.
Major personality attributes influencing OB
1. Core self-evaluation (CSE)
Positive – like themselves, negative – dislike.
Main elements:
1) Self-esteem – individual’s degree of liking or disliking themselves and the degree to which they think they are worthy or unworthy as people.
Low self-esteem: seek approval from others, prone to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect
2) Locus of control – the degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.
Internals – believe that they control what happens to them
Externals – believe that what happens to them is controlled by the outside forces (luck and chance)
Positive CSE: more challenge in job, more satisfaction; perform better – more ambitious goals, commitment.
2. Machiavellianism
High in Mach – pragmatic, emotionally distant, believes that ends can justify the means; they manipulate, win, and persuade more, are persuaded less.
High Mach flourish
1) When they interact face to face with others rather than indirectly
2) When the situation has a minimum number of rules, thus allowing improvisation
3) When emotional involvement with details irrelevant to winning
High Mach is good for jobs that need bargaining skills or that offer substantial reward for winning.
3. Narcissism
High narcissism – grandiose sense of self-importance, is arrogant; less effective in jobs.
4. Self-monitoring
Considerable adaptability in adjusting the behaviors to external, situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. They are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self.
Low self-monitors display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation.
5. Risk taking
6. Type A – aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant (безперервний) struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and against the opposing efforts of other things or persons.
People who are excessively competitive and seem to be experiencing a sense of time urgency.
Can work under pressure, are fast, emphasize quantity over quality, demonstrate competitiveness by working long hours, rarely creative, rely on past experience.
Type B rarely harried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever-decreasing amount of time.
7. Proactive
Show initiative, take action, create positive change in their environment, leaders, challengers.

Values represent basic , enduring convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence”.
Values involve judgment – right, wrong, desirable.
Attributes to evaluate values:
1) Content – a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important
2) Intensity – specifies how important it is. Rank values according to the intensity – value system.
Types of values
1. Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)
Terminal Values – desirable end-state (goals to achieve during lifetime) - Comfortable life; Exciting life; Sense of accomplishment; World at peace; Equality; Family security; Freedom; Happiness; Inner harmony; Mature love; National security etc.
Instrumental values – preferable modes of behavior, means of achieving the terminal values – ambitious, broad-minded, capable, cheerful, clean, courageous, forgiving, helpful, honest, imaginative, independent, intellectual, logical etc.
People in the same occupations or categories tend to hold similar values.
2. Contemporary work cohorts
Segmented by the era in which they entered the workforce (which correlates with the age).
Limitations:
1) Doesn’t correlate with all cultures
2) This is intuitive framework (very little researches)
3) Categories are imprecise
Cohort
Entered the workforce
Appr. age
Dominant work values
Veterans
1950s-60s
65+
Hard-working, conservative, conforming, loyalty to organization
Boomers
1965 – 1985
Early 40s to mid-60s
Success, achievement, ambition, dislike of authority, loyalty to career
Xers
1985 – 2000
Late 20s to early 40s
Work – life balance, team-oriented, dislike of rules, loyalty to relationships
Nexters
2000 -
Under 30
Confident, financial success, self-reliant but team-oriented, loyalty to self and relationships.

Values across cultures
1. Hofstede’s framework
1) Power distance
2) Individualism
3) Masculinity
4) Uncertainty avoidance
5) Long-term orientation
2. The GLOBE framework for assessing cultures
1) Assertiveness – toughness, confrontation, competitive vs. modest, tender
2) Future orientation – planning, investing in the future
3) Gender differentiation
4) Uncertainty avoidance
5) Power distance
6) Individualism/collectivismin-group collectivism – the extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups (family, friends, organizations)
7) Performance orientation
8) Humane orientation – fairness, altruism, generousness, care.

Linking personality and values to the workplace

Person-job fit
John Holland’s personality-job fit theory
Type
Personality characteristics
Congruent occupation
Realistic: prefers physical activities that requires skill, strength and coordination
Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, practical
Mechanic, drill press operator, farmer, assembly-line worker
Investigative: prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding
Analytical, original, curious, independent
Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter
Social: prefers activities that involve helping and developing others
Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding
Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical psychologist
Conventional: prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities
Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible
Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, file clerk
Enterprising: prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power
Self-confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering
Lawyer, real estate agent, public relationship specialist, small business manager
Artistic: prefers ambiguity and activities that allow creative expression
Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical
Painter, musician, writer, decorator

Person-organization fit
People leave organizations that are not compatible (сумісний) with their personalities
1) Extroverts fit better with aggressive and team-oriented cultures
2) Agreeable – supportive organizational climate
3) Open to experience – organizations that emphasize innovation rather than standardization

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