Table.1 Educational Background | Dorothea Orem (Needs Theorist) | Dorothea Orem received a diploma from the Providence Hospital School of Nursing in Washington, D.C. in 1934 and went on to the Catholic University of America to earn a B.S. in Nursing Education in 1939, and an M.S. in Nursing Education in 1945 from the Catholic University of America, Washington, DC. She earned honorary doctorates in 1976 from Georgetown University, Washington, DC, and in 1980 from Incarnate Word College, San Antonio, Texas (Meleis, 2012, p. 212). | Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist) | Joyce Travelbee received a diploma in nursing from Charity Hospital, New Orleans, a bachelor of science from Louisiana State University, and graduated Yale with a master of science in nursing (Meleis, 2012, p. 262). | Martha Rogers(Outcome Theorist) | Martha Rogers received a diploma in nursing from Knoxville General Hospital School of Nursing, in 1936. She earned a bachelor of science degree from George Peabody College, Nashville, in 1937. She received her Master’s degree in nursing from Teachers’ College in 1945 (Meleis, 2012, p. 315). | Rosemary Rizzo-Parse(Caring/Becoming Theorist) | Rosemary Rizzo- Parse is a graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and received her master’s and doctorate from the University of Pittsburgh (Nursing Grand Theorists, n.d.). | They all received master degrees in nursing, Orem and Rizzo-Parse went on to receive their doctorates degree.
Philosophy of Nursing | Dorothea Orem (Needs Theorist) | Nurses design interventions to provide or manage self-care actions for persons to recover or maintain health (Hartweg, 1991, p. 1). | Joyce Travelbee(Interaction Theorist) | “A nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical pain or render physical care – she ministers to the whole person. The existence of the suffering whether physical, mental or