Notes for Biology Test

Topics: Skin, Epidermis, Connective tissue Pages: 15 (3648 words) Published: March 2, 2014
 Study Guide for Test 1

The test is worth 100 points
There will be short answer questions worth 2/3 points each
Multiple choices, Fill in the blanks, True or False, Match the column worth 1 point each Short answers/Free response and Multiple choice, etc. are compulsory and they need to be answered. Applied questions – A total of 5 questions (2 points each). They will be considered as extra credit questions There will be diagrams/figures that will have to be labeled as well as identified

Chapter 1
Anatomy - study of the structure and bodily organs and their relationship to each other Gross Anatomy - study of large, superficial, and often visible structures Regional - all structures in one part of the body

Systemic - anatomy by systems
Surface - organs in relation to overlying skin
Microscopic Anatomy - study of cellular and microscopic systems in the body Cytology - study of single cells and their functions
Histology - study of tissues
Developmental Anatomy - study of growth and bodily change
Embryology - study of prenatal development
Growth and puberty - study of (whatever could it be?) puberty

Physiology - study of the function of the body's structural machinery; largely based in the actual physics involved with what's going on in bodily processes Renal - of or relating to the kidneys and/or urinary system

Neurophysiology - related to the brain, spinal cord, or nervous system Cardiovascular - relating to the heart, blood vessels, or circulatory system

Principle of Complementarity - function of a cell, tissue, organ, etc., is always reflected by its structure

Necessary Life Functions:
Maintenance of internal/external boundary
Movement (muscles and cell transport)
Responsiveness to stimuli (nervous)
Digestion of nutrients (digestive)
Metabolism (including catabolism and anabolism of nutrients) Excretion of wastes (excretory)
Reproduction of cells and organisms (reproductive, everything else) Growth (endocrine)

Metabolism - the totality of chemical reactions in the body largely regulated by the endocrine system Catabolism - breakdown of nutrients taken in via the digestive or respiratory systems Anabolism - reconstruction of nutrients and proteins from broken down molecular building blocks Cellular respiration - production of ATP using oxygen and nutrients and mitochondria

Homeostasis - maintenance of stable internal environment despite external changes; a type of dynamic equilibrium; controlled by nervous and endocrine systems; uses negative feedback to regulate levels (response leads to inhibition of further stimulus) 1. Receptors - skin and all sensors therein; monitor the environment and lead to response to stimuli 2. Control Center- brain (hypothalamus); determines where levels should be, receives input from receptors, determines appropriate response 3. Effector - resulting actions; receives output from the brain, and provides means to respond Regulation of volume via antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Hypothalamus tells to pituitary gland to release ADH
ADH causes kidneys to release water and increase blood volume Positive Feedback - response enhances stimulus
Oxytocin causes vaginal dilation in labor and release of more oxytocin Platelet clotting caused by thrombin and releases more thrombin Homeostatic Imbalance
Increased risk of disease
Associated with aging and more common in elderly
Allows for destructive positive feedback (heart failure)

Viscera - internal organs contained for the most part in the ventral/ abdominopelvic/ abdominal cavity

Survival Needs:
Nutrients - carbohydrates, some lipids, vitamins, and minerals necessary for bodily processes such as growth, homeostasis, and regeneration Oxygen - necessary for most all bodily chemical reactions, especially in ATP production Water - 60-80% of you, needed for most all bodily processes, maintenance of isotonic body conditions, and cytosol itself Thermoregulation - correct body temperature (37°C) is necessary for...
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