The Canadian Shield is a zone undergirded by ancient rock and is probably the first part of what became the North American landmass to have emerged above sea level.
Incas were located in Peru with an elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire.
Aztecs were located in Mexico. They shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations. Their advance agricultural practices were based primarily on the cultivation of maize.
A Nation State is a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit. It is also a state or country with defined borders and racially or culturally similar people.
Cahokia is Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis , home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.
The three-sister farming is an agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A.D. Maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields.
Middlemen are those dealers who operate between the originals producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to the consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy toll to Muslim middlemen.
Caravel is a small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely to the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey.
A plantation is a large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers' established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South.
The Columbian exchange is the transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
Tordesillas, Treaty of (1494)
The Tordesillas, Treaty of 1494 was signed by Spain and Portugal dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of the territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.
Conquistadores were sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from COlorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztecs and Incan empires. It also means conquerors.
Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment in business ventures in order to make a profit.
Encomienda is a Spanish government's policy to "comment" or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a border Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
Noche Triste, "sad night', is when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, killing hundreds. Cortes laid siege to the city in the following city, precipitating the fall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule.
Mestizos were people of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
Acoma, Battle of (1599)
Acoma, Battle of 1599 is the battle between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in the present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
Pope's Rebellion 1680
The Roman Catholic mission became the central institution in colonial New Mexico until the missionaries' efforts to suppress native religious customs provoked and Indian uprising. The Pueblo Indian's rebellion drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico.
The Black Legend was a false notion that Spanish conquerors did little...
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