NOMINALIZATIONS IN SCIENTIFIC AND POLITICAL GENRES: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE BAHRAM KAZEMIAN & SOMAYYEH HASHEMI
Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
Language, science and politics go together and learning these genres is to learn a language created for codifying, extending and conveying scientific and political knowledge. Grammatical metaphor is divided into two broad areas: ideational and interpersonal. This article focuses on the first type of grammatical metaphor, i.e. the ideational one, which includes process types and nominalization. The principal objective of the current work is to analyze a corpus comprising 10 scientific and 10 political texts. The Ideational Grammatical Metaphor framework was used to carry out an analysis on these texts to pinpoint their similarities and dissimilarities. The analysis indicates that Ideational Grammatical Metaphor has dominated political and scientific texts and is used approximately with the same frequency in both genres and the prevailing process types in both are material and relational types. Consequently, the tone of the writing is more abstract, pretentious and formal. In science, instances of IGM enable technicalizing and rationalizing; and in politics they deal with dominance, provocation, persuasion toward an intended objective. Based on the findings of this study, some implications can be drawn for academic writing and reading as well as translators and teachers involved in writing and reading pedagogy. KEYWORDS: Ideational Grammatical Metaphor, Nominalization, Process Types INTRODUCTION
Developed mainly by Halliday (1985,1994), Grammatical Metaphor (GM) is "a substitution of one grammatical class, or one grammatical structure, by another" (Halliday & Martin, 1993, p. 97). GM is conceived "as an incongruent realization of a given semantic configuration in the lexico-grammar" (Halliday, 1985, p. 321). Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) maintain that GM has its unique performance characteristics as a kind of grammar phenomenon. Halliday (1985, 1994) classified GM into ideational and interpersonal metaphor, in which the Ideational Gramatical Metaphor (IGM) includes process and nominalization. IGM is a non-metaphorical depiction of the ideational meaning. It is principally symbolized by the transitivity system. IGM primarily utilizes the form of the noun to convey the process or quality which should be expressed by verbs and adjectives. Nominalization is the most typical structure of IGM, particularly in scientific, political discourse etc. Halliday and Matthiessen (2004) point out that information density, nominalization and GM are as the foremost lexico-grammatical features of the academic and written language. They also state that nominalization has been recognized as the sole most substantial resource for establishing GMs. In short, the major reflection of the IGM is nominalization, for instance, trains head-on collision is a metaphorical variant of trains collided head-on in which the process collide is rendered in a nominal type of construction. In the English transitivity system, there are six main types of process: material, relational, mental, verbal, behavioral and existential processes. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Taverniers (2002, 2003) asserts that the concept of realization and especially the inter-stratal coding relationship between semantics and lexico-grammar play a remarkable role in the recognition and understanding of GM as a specific phenomenon of language. The notion of GM represents an original and innovative contribution that identifies and describes the fact that all genres, in particular, political, scientific and academic registers in writing and in speaking, are practically directed to achieving objectification and abstraction of their content. They accomplish this functional objective through the linguistic process of GM, a procedure that encapsulates information by...
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