Noli Me Tangere
CONSTANTINO’S ARGUMENTS: * Rizal pre-eminence among other Filipino heroes was partly the result of American sponsorship. * Governor William Howard H. Taft was quoted in one of his statement that Rizal was “the greatest Filipino, a physician, a novelist and a poet (who) because of his struggle for a battlement of conditions under Spanish rule, was unjustly convicted and shot. * The American wanted a national hero who would not oppose policies with regard to American colonial rule in the Philippines.
OCAMPO’S ARGUMENTS: * It is true that Rizal’s heroism was overemphasized by the Americans. Rizal was already viewed as a hero even before his execution in Bagumbayan. * As a matter of fact, President Aguinaldo declared the day of Rizal’s death as an “annual day of nationals mourning in honor of Rizal” * Rizal served as the inspiration of our freedom fighters to continue the revolution.
RIZAL LAW (R.A 1425) * The Catholic Church in the Philippines opposed the passage of this bill urging its parishioners to express their resistance on the bill through their senators and representatives. * The catholic church stated that the State should not mandate the people to reads Rizal’s novel as it would “endanger their salvation” * The Catholic Church threatened to shut down its schools as a sign of their protest in passing the bill. Recto, on the other hand. Told them to go ahead so the State could nationalize them.
PROVISIONS OF THE RIZAL LAW (R.A 1425) * RATIONALE OF THE LAW: * To promote the nationalism as an exemplified through the life of the Filipino hero. * To appreciate the importance of valuing our independence and values as a Filipinos.
* SECTION 1: * The law mandates all private and public school to include in their curricula the life and works of Jose P. Rizal, including the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibustersmo. * The unabridged version of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismoshall be used as basic text in tertiary level.
* SECTION 2: * The law obliges all educational institution to have adequate copies of unabridged versions of Rizal’s biography and writings.
* SECTION 4-6: * The provisions deal with administrative legal issues.
DR. JOSE P. RIZAL * Born: June 19, 1861 Died: December 30, 1896 * Complete name: Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda * Father: Francisco Mercado Rizal * Mother: Teodora Alonso * 7th child * Siblings: * Saturnina (1850-1913) * Paciano (1851-1930) * Narcisa (1852-1939) * Olimpia (1855-1887) * Lucia (1857-1919) * Maria (1859-1945) * Concepcion (1862-1865) * Josefa (1865-1945) * Trinidad (1868-1951) * Soledad (1870-1929) * Composition of Rizal’s blood: Negrito, Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Spanish. * He came from a typical middle class (principalia) family. * House: made of adobe and hardwood situated in a prime and huge lot. * The original surname of the family is Mercado. The surname adopted by Domingo Lamc/Lam-co in 173. Rizal was given to the family by a Spanish alcalde mayor.
* In 2011, the Philippines celebrated the 150th birth anniversary of Dr. Jose P. Rizal * On June 22,1861, he was baptized as “Jose Rizal Mercado” at the Calamba Catholic Church by its parish priest Reverend Father Rufino Collantes. Rizal’s godfather/sponsor was also a priest, Father Pedro Casanas. * A year and three months after Rizal’s baptism, the Calamba Catholic Church, together with his church records were burned.
RIZAL’S TIME: THE WORLD * The Emancipation Proclamation was executed two years after Rizal’s birth. This was proclaimed by President Abraham Lincoln * Benito Suarez became the president of Mexico; Emperor Napoleon III failed to invade Mexico. * The Holy See issued a decision on the conflict between Spain and Germany on the sovereignty of Carolines in Palau.
RIZAL’S TIME: THE PHILIPPINES * The political turmoil in the Spanish monarchy started during the reign of King Ferdinand VII. The Philippines, as one of the major colonies of Spain, experienced frequent shifts of colonial policies and unfixed terms of Spanish government officials. * Emergence of Feudalism- in this kind of system, the king owns a vast majority of land estate.
HOMETOWN: CALAMBA * On the southern part of Calamba lies mount Makiling where there are several hot spring and breath-taking sceneries. Laguna de Bay is located on the eastern part of the town. * Calamba’s name was based on a town legend – “kalan-banga” * The young Rizal was captivated by the town’s natural beauty and richness. As a manifestation of his affection and attachment to the town, he composed a poem entitled – “Un Recuerdo a Mi pueblo.”
CHILDHOOD DAYS IN CALAMBA: * Barely three years old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. It is said that Dona Teodora was Jose’s first teacher. * Because of Dona Teodora, Jose Rizal grew up as a devout Catholic. He participated daily prayers such as Angelus. He was also able to read the bible (in Spanish) at an early age of five. * Jose prayed the Rosary almost every night at their azotea. * Jose was eight when he first visited the Antipolo church. This was his mother’s pilgrimage when the latter promised to the Blessed Virgin should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused her life. * Jose enjoyed walking in the town especially at night. He was accompanied by his aya (nurse maid) * Jose also loved to walk in the field with his pony. He was fond of having lengthy walks in the fields and by the side of the lake tagging along his black dog named Usman.
RIZAL’S INFLUENCES: * INHERITED INFLUENCES: * From Malayan ancestors- independence and bravery * From Chinese ancestors – somber personality, prudence, fortitude, deep affection for children. * From Spanish ancestors- sophistication of bearing, compassion to rudeness, valor for ladies. * ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES: * From Paciano- moral values and passion for education. * From Tiyo Jose Alberto- artistic inlfulences. * From Tiyo Manuel- helped develop his frail body. * From Tiyo Gabriel- reading books. * From Father Leoncio Lopez- research and rational sincerity. THE STORY OF THE MOTH * Rizal’s passion for education enabled him to see that people who are in more serious danger of losing their lives than those who have knowledge. * Rizal’s also realized that religion was only used by the Spaniards abuse, bully, and enslave the Filipino people. * The teachings of the church at that time restricted the Filipinos to think and read materials that explain liberal ideas. * Rizal used his two novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo to encourage his fellow Filipinos pursue knowledge so that their sufferings would cease. * Jose Rizal viewed that education is the only key to free oneself from slavery and abuse. * Contrary to the notion that knowledge killed Rizal, it was his contemporaries ignorance and immaturity that killed him.
RIZAL’S EDUCATION IN BINAN AND TRIUMPH IN ATENEO MUNICIPAL
PACIANO RIZAL: * Date of Birth: March 7,1851 * Paciano was the second child of Don Francisco and Dona Teodora Rizal. * Colegio de San Jose and University of Santo Tomas. * “ Nor Paciano” – the Rizal’s had the custom of adding “nor” and “nora” (short for Senor and Senora) to the names of the older relatives. * When Jose was already in Europe to pursue his studies Paciano collected financial contribution from their friends to support the Propaganda Movement. * Paciano was also arrested when Rizal was imprisoned in Fort Santiago (1896). * After Rizal was executed in Bagumbayan, he went into hiding and dedicated himself as one of the generals of the Philippine Revolution. * He died in Los Banos on April 13, 1930.
RIZAL IN BINAN * In June 1869, Paciano and Rizal left Calamba to study in the village school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. * Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz was the former teacher of Paciano. * Jose Rizal described Maestro Justiniano as a thin man, had long neck,sharp nose, had slightly bent forward body, and always wore sinamay shirt. He mentioned such description in his letter to Ferdinand Blumentrit. * Jose Rizal challenged Pedro (Maestro’s son) to a brawl. * Rizal finished his elementary studies in 1870.
RIZAL’S TRIUMPH IN ATENEO MUNICIPAL * Don Francisco decided to enroll him at the Ateneo Municipal. * Ateneo’s college registrar, father Magin Ferrando, refused to admit Jose Rizal because aside from being late, his body was frail and diminutive for his age. * Rizal was admitted in Ateneo because of father Burgos’ nephew, Manuel Xerez Burgos. * He used the surname “Rizal” in Ateneo to avoid reprisal from the Spanish authorities because “Mercado” was linked to Father Burgos. * During Rizal’s time, the pupils were mandated to hear masses every morning before and after class. * A typical class was devided into two groups: * Internos (Roman Empire) * Externos ( Carthaginian Empire) * Both groups were ruled by an emperor (best students in the class)
* FIRST YEAR:
* His first professor in ateneo is Fr. Jose Bech * He took tutorial session in Sta.Isabel (for only three pesos) in order to become fluent in Spanish language.)
* SECOND YEAR: * As a bibliophile, he collected and read books of Alexander Dumas, Cesar Cantu, and Dr. Feodor Jagor (authors of the Count of Monte Cristo, Universal History and Travel in the Philippines respectively. * THIRD YEAR: * He was at his third year whe Dona Teodora was released in Sta.Cruz provincial jail. * Details on Dona Teodora’s imprisonment: * Jose Alberto’s wife filed a case against Dona Teodora and Jose Alberto accusing them of poisoning her. * Dona Teodora was sentenced to walk barefoot from Calamba to Sta.Cruz Laguna. * She was also detained for two years and a half in a provincial jail. * FOURTH YEAR: * He received five medals and became the best in his batch. * EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN ATENEO: * Classroom emperor * Active member, later secretary of the Marian Congregation. * Member of the Academy of Spanish Literature and Academy of Natural Sciences. * Studied painting under the famous Spanish painter Agustin Saez.
SELECTED LITERARY WORKS WRITTEN AT THE ATENEO
MY FIRST INSPIRATION * Spanish title: Mi Primera inspiracion * The poem was dedicated to Dona Teodora Alonso on her birthday. * Rizal composed no poem before 1874 because of his mother imprisonment. * Jose congratulates his mother on her birthday expressing his filial affection in deep verses.
INTIMATE ALLIANCE BETWEEN RELIGION AND EDUCATION * Spanish name: Allianza Intima Entre la Religion la Buena Education. * It is one of several poems of Rizal which were found in a notebook that he used at the Ateneo. * Rizal expressed his belief that religion is important in education. According to him, religion served as a guide, a nourishment, and an inspiration to good education. * Education without God is not true education. * Rizal belief that education has an important role in the growth and development of the country.
ST. EUSTACE’S POETIC DRAMA * Father Sanchez encouraged Jose to write a theatrical piece based on the prose story of St. Eustace, the Martyr. * St. Eustace, the Martyr * Placidus or Eustachius * He served as the Roman general in the army of Emperor Trajan.
* Rizal spent his summer vacation writing and conceptualizing the poetic verses of the prose story. The piece was completed on June 12, 1876.
Intimate Alliance between Religion and Good Education Jose P. Rizal April 19, 1876
Like climbing ivy
Along erect elm,
Both being enchantment to the verdant meadow,
And beautify each other
As united they grow;
And if the compassionate elm were missing.
The ivy wanting of its consolation
Would see itself sadly wilt;
Thus, so close an alliance sincerely United Education
With the soul of religion:
Because of her, Education attains renown;
And woe to the being who blindly casts aside
The wise doctrines of saintly Religion,
From its pure stream nefariously fleeing.
If from the pompous grapevine
Proudly grows stem
And offers us its sweet clusters,
While generously the vine shoot
By loving plant is fed;
As limpid currents
Of celestial virtue give new life
To education complete,
Guiding her with its refulgent light;
Exuding delicate perfume for her,
And presents us with her savory fruits.
Without Religion. Human education
Is like a ship buffeted by the wind,
That loses her rudder in horrible combat
To the thundering impact and jolt
Of the terrible tempestuous North wind
That fiercely battles her
In the abysses of the angry sea.
If the dew from the sky
Invigorates and nourishes the meadow,
And because of it, in beautiful spring,
The flowers bloom to adorn the soil;
Thus would pious Religion fertilize
Education with its doctrines,
Towards pleasant good shall it walk
With generous plant ;
And bearing vigorously flowers of virtue
Disperse its perfumes everywhere.