Noise Pollution in Cities
1. What is Noise Pollution?
2. What causes Noise pollution?
3. What are the effects of Noise pollution in cities?
4. Measures to control Noise pollution.
What is Noise Pollution?
Noise pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting, irritating, or damaging sounds are freely audible. As with other forms of energy pollution (such as heat and light pollution), noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles, but rather waves that interfere with naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment. Thus, the definition of noise pollution is open to debate, and there is no clear border as to which sounds may constitute noise pollution. In the narrowest sense, sounds are considered noise pollution if they adversely affect wildlife, human activity, or are capable of damaging physical structures on a regular, repeating basis. In the broadest sense of the term, a sound may be considered noise pollution if it disturbs any natural process or causes human harm, even if the sound does not occur on a regular basis. [pic] The prevailing source of artificial noise pollution is from transportation. In rural areas, train and airplane noise can disturb wildlife habits, thereby affecting the manner in which animals in areas around train tracks and airports hunt and mate. In urban areas, automobile, motorcycle, and even entertainment noise can cause sleep disruption in humans and animals, hearing loss, heart disease (as a result of stress), and in severe cases even mental instability. A notable exception to the rule is the electric, or hybrid-electric, automobile. Hybrid vehicles are so quite, in fact, that legislation is pending to actually make them louder. This is in response to numerous injuries in which pedestrians, unaware of a hybrid vehicle's presence, have been struck by such vehicles in parking lots and pedestrian crosswalks. As far as noise pollution is concerned, the monitoring is done mainly during festivals such as Deepawali. A few SPCBs and PCCs have initiated regular noise monitoring since 2008-09. As per available data, the laid down noise norms for respective zones (Industrial, Commercial, Residential or Silence) are exceeded at many locations. However, a definite trend cannot be ascertained for major cities, including Hyderabad, since data is available only for a limited period. The practice of exploding sound emitting firecrackers on religious occasions & weddings, playing of bands during processions, blowing of horns, operation of generator sets, movement of traffic (highways, railways and airways), use of public address systems, construction activities and operation of generator sets increase the ambient noise levels in urban areas.
What causes Noise pollution?
1. Road Traffic Noise:- In the city, the main sources of traffic noise are the motors and exhaust system of autos , smaller trucks, buses, and motorcycles. This type of noise can be augmented by narrow streets and tall buildings, which produce a canyon in which traffic noise reverberates. [pic] 2. Air Craft Noise: - Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has added a new dimension to community annoyance, as the nation seeks to improve its nap-of the- earth aircraft operations over national parks, wilderness areas , and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise has claimed national attention over recent years. 3. Noise from railroads: - The noise from locomotive engines, horns and whistles, and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact neighboring communities and railroad workers. For example, rail car retarders can produce a high frequency, high level screech that can reach peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet, which translates to levels as high as 138, or 140 dB at the railroad worker’s ear. 4. Construction Noise: - The noise from the construction of highways, city streets, and buildings is a...
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