In this paper I am going to discuss the Nobel Prize. Firstly I will inform you of the history of the prize, secondly its origin, and how it is awarded today. After that I will discuss the 2010 Nobel Prize for Medicine, 1901 Nobel Prize for Physics, and the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Alfred Nobel
The Nobel Prize was named after a Swedish inventor and industrialist, Alfred Bernhard Nobel. Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden on October 21, 1833. He was born into a wealthy family, although due to the misfortune of losing building materials on sunken barges, Immanuel Nobel, Alfred’s father, was forced into bankruptcy the same year Alfred was born. In 1842 the family moved to St. Petersburg, Russia. Alfred was then enrolled into first class education with private teachers. He learned natural science, literature, and language; by age 17 Alfred could speak fluent Swedish, Russian, French, English, and German. He fell primarily for English literature, poetry, chemistry, and physics. After traveling around Europe, he liked Paris the best, he worked in a private laboratory of the famous Chemist, Professor T. J. Pelouze. There he met a young Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero, who three years earlier invented nitroglycerine, a highly explosive liquid. Alfred took a lot of interest into nitroglycerine and how it could be used in construction. After many experiments with his father, Immanuel became bankrupt again, forcing the family back to Stockholm. There Alfred concentrated on developing nitroglycerine as an explosive. After many accidental explosions which took the life of many people including his brother Emil, the authorities were convinced that nitroglycerine was too dangerous to be experimented with in Stockholm city limits. Alfred then moved out onto a barge in the middle of Lake Malaren, there he experimented with many different additives. He found an additive to turn nitroglycerine into a paste which could be put into different sized rods. He patented this invention and called it dynamite. The sale of dynamite went out the roof, along with his invention of synthetic rubber, leather, and artificial silk. By the time he died in 1896 he had 355 patents. When he died and his will was opened, everyone was surprised. The will revealed his fortune would be used for Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. Relatives contested the will, but Ragner Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist two young engineers were put in charge of the Nobel Foundation. This organized the money for the Prizes, these men also had to coordinate and conduct Alfred Nobel’s wishes of how the Prizes would be awarded ((1) http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/biographical/articles/life-work/). The selection process of the most prestigious award in the world starts in the fall of the previous year. The prize-awarding institutions invite more than 6,000 people to nominate candidates for selection. The number of nominees usually ranges between 100 and 250, and only one is chosen. The nominators must supply a written proposal with details of their candidate’s worthiness. Self-nomination results in automatic disqualification. All nominations must be submitted January 31st of the award year. On the next day, February 1st, the six Nobel committees start their evaluation of the nominations submitted. By the time September and October the committees have finished their work and turn in their recommendations to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the other prize-awarding institutions. Secret votes start among the institutions, the final decision must be made by November 15th. The ceremony is held in Stockholm, Sweden. On December 10th of every year, this is the anniversary of Alfred Nobles death. ((3) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/416856/Nobel-Prize/93433/The-selection-process) The 2010 Nobel Prize for Medicine
The 2010 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Robert Edwards of Britain. Robert...
References: 1. "Alfred Nobel - His Life and Work". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2010 http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/biographical/articles/life-work/
2. “Infertility.” American Pregnancy Association. 2010. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/infertility/ivf.html
3. "Nobel Prize." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 09 Dec. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/416856/Nobel-Prize>.
4. "The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Advanced Information". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2010 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2010/adv.html
5. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901 - Perspectives". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2010 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1901/perspectives.html
6. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930 - Speed Read". Nobelprize.org. 10 Dec 2010 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/speedread.html
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