Memory- the persistnce of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Encoding- "get information into our brain", the processing of information into the memory system
Storage- "retain that information", the retention of encoded information
Retrieval- "get the information back out", the process of getting information out of memory storage
Parallel Processing- Processing many things simultaneously
Connectionism- one information processing, views memories as products of interconnected neural networks.
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin 3 stages
1) Sensory memory- the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system 2) Short-term memory- activated memory that holds a few items briefly, encodes through rehearsal 3) Long-term memory- the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Working memory- a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (Alan Baddeley)
Explicit memory- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare (declarative memory) Effortful processing- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Automatic processing- unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information Implicit memory- retention independent of conscious recollection (nondeclarative memory)
Iconic memory- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Chunking- organizing items into familiar, manageable units
Mnemonics- memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and...
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