Nick has complained of burning and prickly pain in feet, clumsiness, dizziness when sitting or standing, and vision problems. These are symptoms of both sensory and motor nerve damage.
B. Do you think the symptoms Nick describes are likely caused by peripheral nerve damage? Could they be caused by damage to the central nervous system?
I believe there has been peripheral nerve damage because of the symptoms that he exhibits. It seems that his receptors are not effectively communicating back to the central nervous system; in addition he is losing his somatic reflexes in his feet, both indicating damage to his somatic nervous system. I guess there could be damage to the central nervous system, but I would expect that the symptoms would be even more severe.
C. Diabetic neuropathies damage peripheral nerves. Which component of the reflex arc is most likely to be damaged in Nick’s situation?
I think a lot of Nicks reflex arc damage would begin at the sensory neuron. Stimuli are still triggering the receptor, but the information isn’t traveling along the damaged sensory neuron to continue the arc to the integrating centers, motor neurons, and effectors, though the damage could be further along in the reflex arc providing basically the same symptoms.
D. Which division of the autonomic nervous system would be affected and would be causing Nick’s GI tract symptoms?
Because his digestion is suppressed I would say the sympathetic division is mainly active, inhibiting the gastrointestinal tract. So the parasympathetic division of his nervous system, which allows motility of the gastrointestinal tract, is primarily affected.
E. Nick’s light-headedness is caused by a condition known as orthostatic hypotension, a rapid drop in blood pressure upon standing up. Based on what you have learned so far, how does the autonomic nervous system control