Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
NGOs have used self-created certification systems to reward pilot projects for conservation programmes, but these are usually small scale and do not make a difference to the market unless they take a product or destination cluster. NGOs are more likely to be involved in ecotourism programmers than governments and also NGO programmes tend to be in developing countries. The main interest form NGOs revolves around ecotourism and fair trade tourism, rather than eco-efficiency.
In the Philippines, we had a lot of NGO’s and one of those are: • Citizen's Disaster Response Center
acronym as CDRC and found in West Avenue, Quezon City.
• Center for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development
acronym as CARRD and found in Sikatuna Village, Quezon City
Results of the IYE 2002 consultation
Widespread consultation was undertaken as part of the IYE 202 preparations. Essentially, consultation consisted of preparatory meetings and it was during these that breakout sessions were held to concentrate on certification issues. For sustainable Tourism Stewardship Council’s, the workshops reported in this chapter include: • Philippines
•Mesoamerica – Belize city, belize
• Andean South America – Lima, Peru
• East Africa – Nairobi, Kenya
•Southeast asia – Chiang Mai, Thailand
They were 23 participants at the Mesoamerica workshop, representing countries such as Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
The perception from the participants in Central America is that certification is not an effective tool for generating consumer demand, that consumer demand, that consumers are not aware of certification and that in those cases where certification is known, this is perceived to make the facilities more expensive or cheaper. Certification does play a role in consumer choice, with price, convenience and overall perception of quality being more important.
For industry, certification is a source of criteria of sustainability and quality standards, in the form of manuals and advice. Certification is also perceived as a method to differentiate the quality of the service or product, and to differentiate it from the traditional tourism packages.
In central America there were divided opinions about the type if benefits that the government should provide to certified companies.
They were 90 participants from Colombia, Venezuela, Escuador, Peru and Bolivia. The Andean region is familiar with a wide variety of certification processes, although it can be assumed that Ecuador and Peru are the most familiar with all the issues, while Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela had the least experience. Community issues loom very large in this region. Amazonian area of all the Andean Countries represent vast ecotourism potential, however communities in these regions have little access to good educational systems and capacity building for community based tourism projects has been sparse. although highly significant in certain areas. Communities in this region are very interested in being part of the ecotourism economy.
The industry members that were present came with a strong interest in certification and understood the need for accreditation. They want to use certification to help them compete in the market, as currently they are competing against their Central American counterparts, many of whom are actively involved in certification.
However, several certification programmes are being launched in the region, mainly with government support. It was felt that any certification programmed should not be politicized and that it should maintain neutrality. A clear systems of norms for all certification sectors of society can participate. In particular, this region is concerned that ecotourism certification could become part of the system of political favours and corruption that is typical of their experience with...
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