THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF THE NEUMAN SYSTEMS MODEL
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF NURSING 5120 - THEORY ORIENTED NURSING PRACTICE
Theoretic Analysis of the Neuman Systems Model
A. Theorist’s Background
Betty Neumans’ desire to become a nurse resulted from personal experiences that occurred early in her life. The excellent nursing care provided to her father during his illness and her mother’s experiences as a midwife are two things that motivated her to join the profession. According to Butts & Rich (2015), Neuman received her diploma in nursing in 1947 from People’s Hospital School of Nursing; she later continued her education at UCLA obtaining her bachelor’s degree in 1957 and her master’s degree in 1966. Roughly twenty years later Neuman received her doctorate degree in clinical psychology from Pacific Western University (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). In the early days of her career she worked in a variety of areas in nursing to include communicable disease, education and private duty. Later in her nursing career she worked as a psychiatric nurse and a nurse educator. During this time a need for an educational model depicting the physiological, psychological, sociocultural and developmental aspects of man was identified for graduate studies. As a result, Neuman developed her model of nursing in 1970, it was first published in 1972 in the May-June issue of Nursing Research Journal (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). Since the first publication, the title of the model has evolved into what it is known today as The Neuman Systems Model (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). This model gives nurses a thorough guide for research, administration, practice and education. It also provides the likeness of combining health related theories through evaluating the affiliation of nursing intervention and a patient’s response to stressors (Butts & Rich, 2015). B. Theoretical Sources
Systems theory has the potential for developing a totally new posture toward health care professionalism, this is one source used by Neuman for her theory. Nursing is a system because it consists of elements in interaction with clients. A systems perspective adds to our appreciation of the system’s complexity and allows us to explore the value of its parts (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). Systems science has demonstrated its effectiveness in attacking highly complex, large-scale problems and develops strategies applicable to problem resolution. The concept of system is not limited and can apply to any defined whole. Another system explained by Neuman is the open systems concept. This concept increases the understanding of nursing and has far-reaching implications for nursing. It provides an important working hypothesis for the development of new insights, and statements for verification of new theoretical perspectives. The open systems approach begins by identifying and mapping repeated cycles of input, process and output which serve as feedback for further input (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). These cycles comprise the dynamic organizational pattern. The conceptualization of health care as systems of care requires the use of the conceptual models that reflect general systems theory (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). The Neuman Systems Model meets both of these requirements. It is a comprehensive conceptual model and is derived from general systems theory. This model is relevant for use by members of all health care disciplines. Neumans system orientation facilitates understanding of the diverse systems of health care that are found throughout the world (Neuman & Fawcett, 2011). C. Theoretical Underpinnings
1. Major Central Concepts as they relate to the Nursing Metaparadigm According to Neuman & Fawcett (2011), “human beings are viewed as clients or client systems”. Each client or client system is composed of a basic structure and is protected by encircling lines of both resistance and...
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