Nervous System

Topics: Brain, Nervous system, Central nervous system Pages: 15 (677 words) Published: February 3, 2015
Nervous
System

What is the Nervous
System?



What basic structure is
involved? Neurons

2 Main Functions Of the
Nervous System

Two major Divisions

Central Nervous System
Structures
Brain

Spinal Cord

Description: Spongy organ, that weighs about
3lbs

Description: Thick column of nerve tissue that links
the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral
nervous system.

-Made up of about 100 billion neurons (these
neurons control everything you do, feel, and
remember.)

-Nerve impulses travel from the brain, through the
spinal cord, and then out to the rest of the body
via the spinal nerves.

3 main regions of the Brain:
1)
2)

3)

Cerebrum: Controls movement, Speech
and Thought
Cerebellum: Receives information from
the Sensory organs (Coordinates
Movement and Balance)
Brain Stem: Carries information to and
from the rest of the brain (Involves the
midbrain, pons, and medulla)

Parts of the Spinal Cord:
1.

2.

3.

Spinal Nerve: Carries motor, sensory, and
autonomic signals between the spinal cord and
the body.
Membrane (Meninges): covers the brain and
spinal cord
------3 Parts: Dura mater, Arachnoid mater,
Vascular pia mater
Vertebrae: Supports the upper body’s weight;
provides posture while allowing for movement
and flexibility; and protects the spinal cord.

Brain

Spinal Cord

Peripheral Nervous System
Definition:

the part of the nervous
system that consists of the nerves and
ganglia outside of the brain and spinal
cord.

Function: The main function of the PNS is
to connect the central nervous system
(CNS) to the limbs and organs, essentially
serving as a communication relay going
back and forth between the brain and the
extremities.

Blue= PNS
Red= CNS

What types of injuries damage
the Nervous System?
Head: Concussion

Head: Coma

Definition: A severe bump to the head, which
causes brain tissue to hit the skull, and a
bruise to form..

Definition: A prolonged period of deep
unconsciousness.

Symptoms:

-Not waking up after medical procedures, or
extremely critical accidents.

-Loss of consciusness

Symptoms:

-Vomiting
-Feeling drowsy or confused

Symptoms of a Vegetative Coma:


-Nose bleeds
-Cracked skull, bleeding within the brain
Prevention:
-Wear a helmet
-Fasten your seatbelt





-Avoid alcohol and drugs
-Avoid collisions with the head



May moan or make other sounds
especially when tight muscles are
stretched
May briefly move closed eyes toward
persons or objects
Unable to follow instructions
No speech or other forms of
communication
No purposeful movement

Coma Facts
-Studies show that patients remaining in a vegetative state for at least one year after injury are unlikely to gain consciousness, although they may live for many years.
-The common cause of coma is oxygen deprivation.
-The longest a person has ever been in a coma is 37 years
-The number of deaths within a year after a general anesthesia is frighteningly high: one in 20. In the over-65 age group, it’s one in 10. -In Germany alone each year some 100,000 people suffer from severe traumatic brain injury.

-About 20,000 are followed by a coma of three weeks or longer. Some of them die, others regain health.
-But an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 people a year remain trapped in an intermediate stage - they go on living without ever coming back again.

Diseases/Infections?


Definition: Inflammation of the
membranes surrounding the brain and the
spinal cord



Definition:

A brain disorder in which a
person has repeated seizures
(convulsions) over time.

What can YOU do to protect
your Nervous System?





Notes
- The basic unit of the nervous system is a neuron
- What are the main functions of the nervous system?
• receive information
• process information
- Messages, or impulses, are carried from one part of your body to another by neurons. - Define...
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