There are two common characteristics of a negotiation or bargaining situation. The first characteristic is that all negotiations have conflict inherently in them. Negotiating parties have separate but conflicting interests. For example, a car salesman wants to sell a car at the highest price possible. All while the buyer wants to pay as little as possible for the car. Also, an employee wants the most money he can get for a raise. The manager will want to give as little as possible in order to keep expenses down. The second common characteristic is that of reason. All negotiations will try to follow some rational procedure (Asherman, Ira and Asherman Sandra (1990).
There are certain key aspects to negotiations. The first is that there is interdependence between the two parties. While people may not have the same goal, their outcome is dependent on each other. Therefore it is important for the two parties to work together to reduce tension, stress and conflict (Asherman, Ira and Asherman Sandra (1990).
Negotiators can have altered perceptions of the other party. What often happens in negotiating is for an us/them attitude to develop. This can create more conflict then already exists. Altered perceptions are a result of a number of elements. Stereotypes occur when attributes are assigned to people solely on the basis of their membership in a particular social or demographic group. Stereo- types of men vs. women, labor vs. management, U.S. vs. Iraq can contribute to a negative negotiating session (Cohen, Herb (1980).
The issues of concealment and openness are also