: ANGGUN RIDHA
S. NUMBER : RRA1B212018
CLASS : I
Needs analysis is the process of establishing the “what” and “How” of a course. The concept of needs analysis was expanded to include ‘deficiency analysis (lacks or the gap between what the learner needs to know to operate in the target situation and the learner’s present language proficiency). These analysis aimed to determine priorities, such as, which skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking), and which situations or tasks such as speaking on the telephone or writing minutes from meetings, were more or less important in the target situation. Target needs are what the learner needs to do in the target situation for instance the workplace. The target situation in terms of: Necessities : what the learner has to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. Lacks (deficiency analysis) : the discrepancy between necessity and what the learner already knows. You also need to know what the learner knows already, so that you can then decide which of the necessities the learner lacks. One target necessity might be to read texts in particular subject area. Wants (subjective needs analysis): what the learner actually wants to learn or what they feel they needs. Learners may well have a clear idea of the necessities of the target situation: they will certainly have a view as to their lacks. Gathering information about target needs: Various techniques: Questionnaires
Interviews, with students and administrators
Informal consultations with sponsors, learners, and others.
Learning Needs refers to what the learner needs to do in order to learn. The learner’s wants may or not con form those perceived by teachers or course designers. The learning need is equated to the route of learning. ESP process is concerned not with knowing or doing but with learning. The needs, potential and constraints of the route must also be taken into account, if...
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