Needle Stick Injury

Topics: Occupational safety and health, Intravenous therapy, Safety Pages: 12 (3787 words) Published: April 25, 2012
art & science research


Using an intravenous catheter system to prevent needlestick injury Dimitri Sossai et al (2010) Using an intravenous catheter system to prevent needlestick injury. Nursing Standard. 24, 29, 42-46. Date of acceptance: September 23 2009.

Aim To identify the effect of a sharps awareness campaign and the introduction of a safety catheter device on the annual incidence of needlestick injuries between 2003 and 2007. Method In 2003, a sharps awareness campaign began in San Martino Hospital in Genoa, Italy. In 2005, a safety catheter was introduced and healthcare workers were trained in its use. Data for all occupational accidents from 2003 to 2007 were collected and analysed. Results After introduction of the sharps awareness campaign and use of safety catheters, reported incidents of sharps injuries involving catheters fell from 19 in 2004 to two in 2007 and in neither of those two cases were needlestick prevention devices used. Overall, the rate of needlestick injuries was 24.1 per 100,000 cases when conventional catheters were used and 0.4 per 100,000 cases with safety catheters. Conclusion The sharps awareness campaign and newly adopted needlestick prevention device may have contributed to the prevention of percutaneous injuries caused by catheters. Until the onset of the campaign, the reported annual incidence of needlestick injuries was six. This increased to a peak of 19 reported injuries in 2004, which could be attributed to improved reporting effected by the campaign.

Dimitri Sossai, manager, Health Safety and Prevention Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino, Genoa; Vincenzo Puro, manager, Department of Epidemiology, Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome; Luca Chiappatoli and Giulio Dagnino, biomedical engineers; Bernardo Odone, chemist; Annamaria Polimeri, biologist, Health Safety and Prevention Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino, Genoa; Laila Ruzza, Paola Palombo and Marian Stella Fuscoe, registered nurses, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino, Genoa; Paola Scognamiglio, epidemiologist, Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani, Rome, Italy. Email:

Needlestick injuries, risk prevention, safety needle system These keywords are based on subject headings from the British Nursing Index. All articles are subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated software. For author and research article guidelines visit the Nursing Standard home page at For related articles visit our online archive and search using the keywords. 42 march 24 :: vol 24 no 29 :: 2010

SHARPS INJURIES are one of the most common types of occupational accidents that healthcare workers experience (Elder and Paterson 2006). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) in the United States (US) has estimated that around 400,000 percutaneous injuries occur in the hospital setting each year. However, true injury rates are difficult to assess as underreporting is assumed to be as high as 70% (Lee et al 2005). There is a risk of disease transmission of blood-borne pathogens with a sharps injury, particularly if it is caused by a hollow-bore needle used to access veins or arteries (Trim 2004). Worldwide, 2.5% of cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 40% of cases of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among healthcare workers result from occupational exposure to infected blood (Wilburn 2004). The risk of infection following percutaneous exposure to infected blood is notable, with rates of 6-30% for hepatitis B, 0-7% for hepatitis C and 0.3% for HIV (White 2008). In addition to the hazard of disease transmission, the fear of potential infection may pose a considerable burden on the psychological, emotional and social wellbeing of the injured healthcare worker (Lee et al 2005). More...

References: Adams D, Elliott TS (2006) Impact of safety needle devices on occupationally acquired needlestick injuries: a four-year prospective study. Journal of Hospital Infection. 64, 1, 50-55. Asai T, Hidaka I, Kawashima A, Miki T, Inada K, Kawachi S (2002) Efficacy of catheter needles with safeguard mechanisms. Anaesthesia. 57, 6, 572-577. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) Workbook for Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Sharps Injury Prevention Program. WorkbookComplete.pdf. (Last accessed: March 8 2010.) Elder A, Paterson C (2006) Sharps injuries in UK health care: a review of injury rates, viral transmission and potential efficacy of safety devices. Occupational Medicine (Oxford). 56, 8, 566-574. Hadaway LC (2001) Vascular access devices pinpoint safety. Nursing Management. 32, 10, 51-53. Hoban V (2005) Needlestick injuries. Nursing Times. 101, 14, 18-20. Huber MA, Terezhalmy GT (2007) HIV: infection control issues for oral healthcare personnel. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 8, 3, 1-12. Ippolito G, Puro V, Petrosillo N, De Carli G (1999) Surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in health care workers: the Italian national programme. Euro Surveillance. 4, 3, 33-36. Lavery I, Ingram P (2006) Prevention of infection in peripheral intravenous devices. Nursing Standard. 20, 49, 49-56. Lee JM, Botteman MF, Xanthakos N, Nicklasson L (2005) Needlestick injuries in the United States. Epidemiologic, economic, and quality of life issues. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal. 53, 3, 117-133. Makary MA, Al-Attar A, Holzmueller CG et al (2007) Needlestick injuries among surgeons in training. New England Journal of Medicine. 356, 26, 2693-2699. Ross RS, Viazov S, Roggendorf M (2000) Risk of hepatitis C transmission from infected medical staff to patients: model-based calculations for surgical settings. Archives of Internal Medicine. 160, 15, 2313-2316. Sossai D (2006) Risk assessment of bloodborne pathogens in a hospital: patients and health care workers. Ninth Annual Conference of the European Biosafety Association. May 31-June 2. The Hague, The Netherlands. Trim JC (2004) A review of needle-protective devices to prevent sharps injuries. British Journal of Nursing. 13, 3, 144-153. Tuma S, Sepkowitz KA (2006) Efficacy of safety-engineered device implementation in the prevention of percutaneous injuries: a review of published studies. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 42, 8, 1159-1170. White SM (2008) Needlestick injuries – a testing time. Nursing in Critical Care. 13, 1, 1-2. Wilburn SQ (2004) Needlestick and sharps injury prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 9, 3, 5.
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