Children and Young People’s Development follows a basic pattern or sequence which does not necessarily occur at fixed ages. A list of milestones has been created as a guide to expected development. Children and Young People’s Development can be affected by a number of other factors; for example, social interaction and special needs. My development framework is divided into five age ranges: 0-12 months, 1-3 years, 3-5 years, 5-11 years and 11-19 years. At 0-12 months, a child’s social development includes making sounds to communicate whether crying or babbling and responding positively to family members and familiar people. Communication development follows a similar path. A child will recognise familiar voices, respond with smiles and start to imitate others. Physical development is rapid. A child will develop control of their head, learn to grasp objects, later use a pincer grasp and start to gain control of their body to enable them to sit unaided and eventually crawl. Young people of this age range are very egocentric. They begin to process information through images and commence to become aware of object permanence. Emotionally, a child at this age has a very strong bond with its parents, particularly the mother. They require reassurance and security and become upset when others are angry. At 1-3 years, social development has progressed to responding to simple Instructions and now wants to help adults, to please and seek approval. Physically, a child will be starting to enjoy holding a cup and feeding his or herself. They will begin to start to use a potty, can undress and try to dress self but will require some help. Intellectual development has moved on and now a child can do simple puzzles and recognise basic colours. They can also recognise facial features and body parts. At 1-3 years, communication development has moved on to asking lots of questions to gain more information and they can now form sentences. They also repeat a lot of what they hear. Emotionally, the child begins to detach, starts to become more independent and do things for themselves. However, reassurance will still be sought when introduced to strangers or new situations. They begin to understand feelings and have emotional outbursts when they get frustrated. At 3-5 years, children begin to enjoy the company of others and are learning to play together. They still seek to please and closely observe and imitate others. Physically, a child can run well, throw and catch a ball sometimes inaccurately and have continued fine motor skill improvement. They have become competent in gross motor skills and can jump, climb and ride a tricycle. Intellectual development at 3-5 years has moved onto more complex activities as there is an increase in attention span. They hold strong opinions on likes and dislikes and start to learn basic concepts through play. Communication skills have improved and a child can now have a vocabulary of up to 1500 words. They still ask lots of questions and talk constantly. They can follow simple instructions and deliver verbal messages. Emotionally, a child is now less reliant for reassurance in new situations. They start to show caring for others who are distressed but still have limited awareness of the feelings and needs of others. At 5-11 years, children still enjoy the company of other children but now start to develop special relationships. They may also start to copy bad behaviour to gain adult attention. Towards the latter end of the age bracket, they become less concerned with gaining adult approval and now start to seek peer approval. Physically, they are more co-ordinated and will now be able to ride a bicycle (with stabilisers initially). Fine motor skills have improved also and they are more adept at making things and handwriting becomes clearer. A child’s intellectual development at 5-11 years has increased further. They now develop an interest in reading alone, can read some...
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