"Propaganda is the art of nearly deceiving one's friends without quite deceiving one's enemies." F. M. Cornford once offered this as an offhand explanation of what he believed propaganda to be. In reality, the human behavior of propaganda has grown from its origination into a complex web of technique and strategy. It can be traced back to as early as written accounts could have been taken, such as the Arthashastra, which was written around the 4th century BCE. Written by Chanakya, it discussed propaganda in a variety of aspects. As one looks through history's timeline, propaganda can be observed to have spread from the Maurya Empire of ancient India into the writings of Romans, such as Livy. This may not specifically mean propaganda originated in India and then spread out past Rome and so forth, but offers the point that it is a human behavior which has roots in the earliest years of human civilization. It became blatantly public, though, during World War II with the Nazi movement. World War II was sparked by the invasion of Poland by Germany on September 1st 1939. Led by Adolf Hitler, the Nazi party invaded in accordance with a secret agreement with the Soviet Union, which was destined to join their forces on September 17th. War was declared on September 3rd, at 11:15 GMT, as a response from France along with the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. South Africa joined this movement on September 6th, and Canada joined it on September 10th. In Hitler's wake, Poland, Norway, The Netherlands, Belgium, and France were left powerless. Yugoslavia and Greece joined this list within the ensuing year. Hitler's ideology of a pure Aryan race set the stage for the atrocities to humanity committed by him and his Nazi party, the most widely known being the Holocaust. The Holocaust was Hitler's final solution to the Jewish "question." The final result of this genocide was the death of approximately six million Jews, twenty-two hundred Sinti and Roma, six million Poles, five hundred thousand Servs, nearly five hundred thousand Bosniaks. The murder of Europe consisted of the Jewish, the mentally or physically disabled, homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah's Witnesses, Communists and political dissidents, trade unionists, Free Masons, Eastern Christians, and the Catholic and Protestant. The total estimate of Holocaust victims has been as high as twenty-six million. An estimate of sixteen hundred Jews committed suicides in Berlin. The Nazi controlled territories were forced to surrender on May 1945, when the Allies finally entered Germany, completely ending World War II. The arrival of the Great Depression in Germany, in 1930, was the political turning point in Hitler's rise to power. The Weimar Republic was openly opposed by right wing conservatives, as well as monarchists, communists, and the Nazis. The new Chancellor Heinrich Bruning of the Roman Catholic Sentre Party was lacking a majority in the Parliament. Bruning's measure of budget consolidation and financial austerity brought little economic improvement and was extremely unpopular. Hitler appealed to the farmers, war veterans, and the middle class, who had been hard hit by both the inflation of the 1920's and the unemployment of the Depression. In 1932, Hitler ran against president Paul Von Heidenburgh during the election. Hitler didn't even have a German citizenship at the time. Hitler was supported by a broad range of reactionary nationalists, monarchists, Catholics, Republicans and even by the social democratic party. He ran against the Communist presidential candidate. His campaign was called "Hitler uber Deutschland." (Hitler Over Germany) The name had a double meaning. There was a reference to Hitler's dictatorship and also the more literal reference to his aerial campaign. This was a brand new political tactic that allowed Hitler to speak to more than one city in any given day. Hitler came in second on both rounds, and gained 35% of the votes...
Bibliography: • Rutherford, Ward. Hitler 's Propaganda Machine. New York: Bison Books Corp., 1978
• Bernays, Edward. Propaganda. Canada: Ig Publishing, 2005
• Bytwerk, Randall. Bending Spines. Michigan: Michigan State University press, 2004
• Evans, Richard. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Books, 2005
• Evans, Richard. The Coming of the third Reich. New York: Penguin Books, 2003
• Bytwerk, Randall. "German Propaganda Archive" Bending Spines, February 23, 2007, http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ww2era.htm
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