Germany surrenders and the Kaiser abdicates. Germany becomes a Republic. June 28th 1919: Treaty of Versailles
Germany are forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles (November Criminals), which many Germans describe as a ‘Diktat’. The Weimar Constitution (rules) is set up which makes Germany a democracy with a President, Chancellor and a Reichstag, elected by proportional representation. January 4th to January 15th:
The Spartakist Uprising led by Communist Rosa Luxemborg and defeated by the Freikorps. March 1920:
The Kapp Putsch supported by the Freikorps takes place. Led by Wolfgang Kapp who wanted to overthrow the Weimar Republic to create a right wing autocratic government. Soon defeated by a trade union strike.
French and Belgium troops invade the Ruhr over unpaid reparations. Passive resistance followed by violence. German miners soon went out on strike which led to hyperinflation. 1923:
Hyperinflation crisis in Germany.
Hitler attempts the Munich Putsch but fails and is sentenced to 5 years in prison. Only serves 9 months. Writes Mein Kampf in prison. 1924:
Gustav Stresemann introduces the Rentenmark to end hyperinflation and restarts reparations payments. He negotiated the Dawes Plan with the USA which reduced and restructured reparations and allowed huge US loans. French troops leave the Ruhr.
Germany signs the Locarno treaty and regains international respectability. This agrees borders and allows Germany to join the League of Nations. 1926:
Germany allowed to join the League of Nations
Germany signs the Kellogg and Briand pact which helped get international acceptance. 1929:
The Young Plan is introduced and it continues the work of the Dawes plan. October:
It is soon interrupted by the Wall Street Crash which destroys the German economy. Unemployment rises.
October 3rd 1929
Gustav Stresemann dies.
Unemployment reaches 3 million.
Nazis gain 107 seats in the Reichstag.
Unemployment reaches 6 million and the Nazis gain 230 seats in the Reichstag. 1933:
Hitler becomes Chancellor after a deal with Hindenburg and Von Papen who believed he could be used as a puppet. February:
Hitler calls for new election.
The Reichstag Fire started by Communist Van der Lubbe.
Hindenburg uses Article 231 against the Communists.
Nazis gain 288 seats in the Reichstag
Deal with the Catholic Centre party promising a Concordat.
Enabling Act is passed to give Hitler power to be dictator and rule by decree.
Hitler uses powers to ban trade unions and other political parties. Germany becomes a one party state.
Concentration camps set up for the enemies of the Nazis, mainly Communists, Jews and Socialists. Public work schemes started (RAD), including autobahns.
Concordat officially signed.
Following Hindenburg’s death Hitler combined the role of Chancellor and President to become Fuhrer. 1935:
Hitler announces military conscription and rearmament to break Versailles Treaty. Nuremburg Laws stops Jews marrying Aryans.
The Four Year Plan for the economy intruded under Goering, with the policy of Autarky (being self-sufficient) Olympic Games in Berlin used for Propaganda.
Hitler tells his generals to be ready for war by 1940.
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) launched against Jews which destroyed businesses and synagogues. 1939:
Restrictions on Jews intensified.
Membership of Hitler Youth made compulsory for children.