Homosexuality: A Case of Nature versus Nurture
Instructor: Mr. Simbarashe Chiduma
A RESEARCH PAPER
Baker College in partial fulfillment of requirements
For class: Soc 201
Homosexual is defined as: “of, relating to, or characterized by a tendency to direct sexual desire toward another of the same sex” (Webster’s Dictionary, 4th ed., 2003)
The nature approach is based on a chance that humans are born with a specific gene that determines if they will be homosexual. "In other words, some people are born gay." (Johnson, 2003)
The nurture approach tells that people are influenced by their surroundings. In this approach, "A nurtured gay person is one that is 'made' gay." (Johnson, 2003)
Originally the American Psychological Association (APA) had deemed homosexuality a mental disease. The debate now- a-days revolve around if sexuality is based on nature, a person’s environment, or based on nurture, a person’s upbringing.
Alfred Kinsey pioneered one of the earliest experiments in the 1930s. Kinsey’s research resulted in little besides putting the word homosexual into the common language.
Karen Hooker completed the first psychological test in 1957. The research was put together to investigate the relationship between homosexuality, psychological development, and illness. The subjects were given three tests, the Rorschach, TAT, and MAPS. She determined that there was no link between social determinism of sexuality. As an outcome of Hooker’s research, the APA released a statement in 1975 saying that homosexuality was not a mental disorder. According to a recent brochure from the APA, they have “called on psychologists to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with lesbian, gay, and bisexual orientations.” (American Psychological Association 2008 ) D.F. Swaab organized the next major research experiment on post-mortem brains. “Swaab found in his...
References: Webster 's New World Dictionary (4th e.d.). (2003). New York, NY: Pocket Books
American Psychological Association. (2008). Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation & Homosexuality. Washington, DC: Author. [Retrieved from www.apa.org/topics/sorientation.pdf]
National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality. (n.d.). Is There a "Gay Gene"? Retrieved from http://narth.com/docs/istheregene.html
About.com Guide. (n.d.). Nature vs Nurture. Retrieved from http://gaylife.about.com/od/naturevsnurture/i/naturevsnurture.htm
Johnson, Ryan D. (April 30, 2003). Homosexuality: Nature or Nurture. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/journal/homosexuality.html
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