SPY1080- INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENTAL PHYSCOLOGY NATURE AND NURTURE DEBATE This essay will outline the drawing on the physiological theories presented so far in the module, I am going to outline and discuss key issues in the nature/nurture debate on children’s development and how it will effect child development. The nature/nurture debate is very important in phycology concerns the relative importance of the influence of nature or nurture in explaining human behaviour. The nature/nurture debate is one of the oldest arguments in history of phycology, both nature and nurture play important roles in human development but nobody yet knows whether we are developed because of nature or nurture. The nature/nurture debate centres of the relative contributions of genetic inheritance and environmental factors to human development. Nature is inherited influences such as our genes and physiological make-up for example is eye colour and colour of hair are genetically inherited from our parents; nurture is how life has influenced us from our experiences for example this is where children are brought up to do things because of the way they are brought up for example by being told what is right and what is wrong by the people around them and the area they live in for example the environment where you grew up in may have an effect on the way you talk, behave and respond to the things around you. Scientists have known for years that traits such as eye colour and hair colour are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. The Nature Theory shows that things such as intelligence, personality, aggression, and sexual orientation are also encoded in an individual's DNA. For example some people believe that people who have sex same relationships are born that way and it is in their DNA. People who support the nature debate believe that a child’s personality is determined by genetics and their personality is inherited from their parents and their behaviour is also inherited and is not influenced by how they have been brought up. The issue of nature having a great impact on a child's development can be shown in the studies of twins for example Cara Flanagan explored the Minnesota study in which a set of twins was raised separately. In one case, a set of identical twins was raised apart, known as the Jim twins. They did not meet until they were almost forty and had many similarities even though they were raised apart. Flanagan (2002) says “"The Minnesota twin study concluded that on multiple measures of personality and temperament, occupational and leisure-time interests and social attitudes, mono-zygotic twins reared apart are about as similar as are mono-zygotic twins reared together" this shows that nature plays a big role in are development and This leads to the conclusion that the similarities between twins are due to genes, not environment. The nurture theory shows that the influence of a person's environment on their behaviour is a very common for example if somebody is brought up in a certain area with certain people it may affect their behaviour for example crime is a high factor due to the environment, children who have been brought up in a violent area or by violent parents may have a chance of becoming violent or involved in crimes themselves. Also the environment can affect early child development because of the surroundings around them for example they may become scared off different things such as, thunder, lightning, snow and rain etc. Another example of environmental influences in the behaviour of people comes from a study done by John B. Watson, he was a child theorist who developed a learning theory of growth and development, this theory states that behaviour is not inborn but is learned. Watson believed that children learn new responses by watching and imitating others, He added to our understanding of operant conditioning, especially the role of rewards and punishments. Watson done an experiment called The Little...
Bibliography: Flanagan, C. and Cardwell, M(2009) physiology AS second addition Haddenham : Folen
Burman, E(2008) Deconstructing developmental psychology London; New York : Routledge
Doherty, J. and Hughes, M. (2009) Child Development: Theory and Practice. Harlow: Pearson Education
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