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Nations

Topics: Brazil, United States / Pages: 33 (8209 words) / Published: Jan 19th, 2014
Abstract
This paper explores the international business trade of Brazil. It also compares the aspects of Brazil with the United States. Brazil is a model nation located in South America. Brazil is one among many that conduct international business with the United States. Brazil has discrimination, corruption, and economical issues as well as the United States. The following paper discusses the major elements and dimensions of the culture in Brazil, how these elements and dimensions are integrated by locals, how Brazil compares to the United States, and the implications for the United States to conduct business with Brazil. There are several similarities and differences between the United States and Brazil. This paper covers all the aspects of the similarities and differences with a comparison of the two model nations.

Comprehensive Outline: Brazil
1. Major Elements and Dimensions of Culture
1.1 Communication
1.1.1 Verbal: The main language in Brazil is Portuguese.
1.1.1.1 The nation speaks several different forms of Portuguese that differs in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar.
1.1.1.2 Telephone, broadcast, and internet
1.1.2 Nonverbal: Nonverbal forms of communication consist of body languages, and facial expressions.
1.2 Religion
1.2.1 Largest Catholic country in the world .
1.2.2 Roman Catholic- 73.6%
1.2.3 Pentecostal- 15.4%
1.2.4 Not specified- 11%
1.2.5 Candomble- traditional religious belief by African-derived Brazilian’s.
1.2.6 Umbanda- Religion that began in Rio de Janeiro that has spread throughout the nation .
1.2.7 Spiritism- teachings of Alain Kardec that was introduced in Brazil in nineteenth century .
1.3 Ethics
1.3.1 Corruption
1.3.1.1 Corporate lending remains underdeveloped
1.3.1.2 Lengthy delays in the burdensome tax system
1.3.1.3 Inflexible labor market
1.3.1.4 The potential for a major down slide in economic activity
1.3.1.5 Brazil is the second largest producer of cocaine
1.3.2 Values and Attitudes
1.3.3 Time Management
1.3.4 Changes
1.3.5 Gender Role
1.3.5.1 40% of Women work outside home
1.3.5.2 2% women hold executive positions
1.3.5.3 70% of women are employed in low paying domestic jobs such as farming and factories.
1.3.5.4 Roles of Women vs. men
1.4 Social Status
1.4.1 Social class that is assigned to the family such as high, middle, or low.
1.4.1.1 Middle Class: 1/5 of population
1.4.2 Castes
1.5 Cuisines
1.6 Agriculture
2. Integration of elements and dimensions
2.1. Communication is integrated through converted the barriers that allow better business to be conducted.
2.2. Religion is respected and affiliated with business practices throughout Brazil.
2.3. Ethics
2.3.1. There are standards and rules that Brazil’s government implements when conducting business.
2.3.2. Corruption plays a major part and is growing in the business aspects of Brazil.
2.3.3. Gender differences causes problems in the work force such as females holding the lowest jobs available.
2.4. Social Status
3. Difference between United States and Brazil
3.1. Natural Resources
3.2. Government
3.3. Communication .
3.3.1. Brazil is mainly a High Context Culture
3.3.1.1. Prefers implicit language
3.3.1.2. Derives information from context instead of actual code
3.3.1.3. Alludes to shared experiences in communication
3.3.1.4. Employs ambiguous communication to convey emotional responses
3.3.1.5. Members are expected to know what to do when called upon in a situation
3.3.2. United States is Low Context .
3.3.2.1. Values are explicit
3.3.2.2. Language is neutral
3.3.2.3. Derives information through actual code
3.3.2.4. Avoids allusions and connotations in communication
3.3.2.5. Would rather have precise language when giving descriptions
3.4. Religion
3.4.1. Brazil consists mainly of Catholics
3.4.2. United States is made up of a broad religion such as Catholics, Buddhism, Baptist, Protestants, Muslims, Jews, and Jehovah’s Witnesses
3.5. Ethics
3.5.1. Ethical behavior is understood throughout nations. There is no set of guidelines it is taught through good business relationships and respect.
3.6. Social Status
3.6.1. Each nation consists of high, middle, and low class .
3.6.1.1. Brazil
3.6.1.1.1. Wealthy, middle class, and very poor
3.6.1.1.2. Discrimination on skin color instead of race
3.6.1.1.2.1. People with darker skin are socially disadvantaged
3.6.1.1.2.2. Brazil has several nationalities and is not just known as black or white .
3.6.1.1.2.3. Racial consciousness is ignored in Brazil .
3.6.1.1.2.4. White middle-class women have more occupational options then lower class darker women
3.6.1.1.2.5. Men are consider the bread winners and the primary providers for the family
3.6.1.1.2.6. Women’s right are slowly progressing in Brazil
3.6.1.2. United States consists of a “one drop” policy which means anyone that has African ancestry is classified as black .
3.6.1.2.1. United States has high, middle, and lower class
3.6.1.2.2. Men and Women are primary providers for their families
3.6.1.2.3. Women are entitled to whatever occupation they qualify for in the United States
3.6.1.2.4. Women’s rights have been proposed and enforced with great progress over the years
3.6.1.3. Cuisines
3.6.1.4. Agriculture
4. Implications for American business desiring to conduct business in Brazil
4.1. Communications
4.1.1. Do research and make sure that different gestures and words are understood before conducting business.
4.1.2. Learn the style of language to ensure better business opportunities
4.2. Religion
4.3. Ethics
4.3.1. Conduct good ethical behavior
4.4. Gender
4.4.1. Understand the culture and what gender specific qualifications are expected

International Business with Brazil
Brazil is a nation located in South America. It is made up of several different ethnic cultures white, mulatto, black, Japanese, Arab, Amerindian, and unspecified . This nation is known for its imports and exports. Brazil plays an important role in exports and imports with the United States. Agriculture is imperative in Brazil in many ways than one. There are several major elements and dimensions of culture that are integrated through the locals. The United States and Brazil are similar and different in all aspects of life. The United States has taken several steps to improve international business practices with Brazil over the recent years. This paper examines all the key factors of the culture of Brazil as well as the business aspects of the United States and Brazil.
Major Elements and Culture Brazil is a very diverse nation that has several different forms of ethnic cultures. The Central Intelligence Agency found after conducting the 2000 census that white people make up 53.7%, mulatto which is a mix race between white and black individuals, makes up 38.5% of the population, black people account for 6.2%, Japanese, Arab, and Amerindian account for 0.9% of the population . Communication in Brazil is imperative. The most common type of communication is verbal. The main language in Brazil is Portuguese .
Brazil is split into five different regions Norte, Nordeste, Centro-Oeste, Sudeste, and Sul . The previously stated divisions are imperative for the Census to be accurate. Norte (North) and Centro-Oeste (Central-West), are mostly populated with indigenous people . Nordeste (Northeast), have the largest population of African descents . Sudeste (southeast) and Sul (South) are largely populated by Brazilians of European and Japanese descent . Due to slavery and other settlement issues such as Portuguese settlers marring the native women from Brazil, there is an abundance of mixed races .
It is custom in Brazil, to do business with an individual face to face. Brazil hold a high standard in which they do business to make sure that all deals are made as efficiently and proper as possible. When communicating with Brazil during business deals, the meetings are conducted in an informal manner to make the individuals comfortable . Informal communication typically does not have strict rules or regulations to follow. This will ensure a level of comfort is met while conducting business. In Brazil, the people put emotions or emphasis in their dialect .
Non-verbal communication also plays a role in how individuals communicate in Brazil. Individuals use a large amount of body language in their everyday normal communication habits . When conducting business, Brazilians have high levels of eye contact and can come across as being intimidating due to the eye contact, being in close proximity, and with body language . Researchers find it imperative to study the communication barriers and know what to expect before conducting business .
Brazil is the largest Catholic country in the entire world . Other than Catholic religion there are Candomble, Umbanda, and Spiritism. Candomble is a traditional religious belief by African-derived Brazilian’s . Umbanda is a religion that began in Rio de Janeiro that has spread throughout the nation . Spiritism is the teachings of Alain Kardec that was introduced in Brazil in the nineteenth century . Roman Catholics make up 73.6%, Pentecostal 15.4%, and not specified 11% of Brazil .
Brazil is a key player in the business world today. It is faced with several issues involving corruption. There are several strengths and weaknesses in the business aspects of Brazil. The nation has made a large effort to put a halt to corrupt officials, which in return increased the confidence to stopping the issue of corrupt officials . The halt to the corrupt officials was enforced by Dilma Rousseff, forcing her to rebuild the coalition in order to make important reforms possible before the 2014 elections . Although changes to have been made to better the economy, corporate lending remains underdeveloped . Several governors and ministries have been charged with corruption.
The tax system in Brazil is also known for being corrupt. Research shows that tax collectors will ask for bribes in return for turning their heads on inspections and also to stop pursuing tax fraud . Although Brazil is trying to stop corruption in their nation, they have good intentions with no enforcement of the laws . Corruption is also causes an inflexible labor market . Due to the rise in corruption, the growth of the nation has had a dampening effect on the economy.
A drug war in Brazil is also another reason for corruption. Brazil is the second largest consumer of cocaine in the entire world . Although the government has tried to control the trafficking of illicit drugs through a large-scale eradication program, drug-related violence and weapons smuggling are laundered through the financial system in the Tri-Border Area . The Amazon region of Brazil has made domestic consumption and air transshipments easier access to the cocaine traces in the region .
Brazil has high values when conducting business. Attitudes are also very important when conducting business. The business person likes to build a relationship with the person before the business idea is proposed. Businessmen in Brazil turn their focus on the relationship rather than the deal itself . The behavior of the businessman in Brazil is based upon his emotions rather than the universal ethical rules . Brazil has a set of mission, values, and principles it follows. Values include ethics, professionalism, honesty, transparency, commitment to results, loyalty, community, accountability, and customer focus . There are certain ground rules when conducting business with Brazil that consist of motivating yourself and other, set an example of transparency and honesty, practice the “9 Points”, work with the “5 core values”, be pro-active, give positive feedback, and follow guidance procedures and routines .
The family values of Brazil build the foundation of the social structure of each household . The families in Brazil are typically large and have a close relationship and bond with extended families . Families find comfort in being able to use all members to survive. The reason behind extended families is that individuals derive a social network and assistance in severe times of need .
Time management in Brazil is flexible. They find that deadlines are important, but they are concerned with the feelings of others instead of deadlines . It is important when making deadlines while conducting business in Brazil; you make a flexible schedule allowing for deadlines to be extended. When dealing with changes in Brazil, it is a slow and thorough process. All changes are thought through and due to the fear of embarrassment . When proposing a change, make sure that all information is provided and how the change will positively affect the business . Typically in most regions of Brazil, business meetings start on time .
When scheduling a business meeting with a Brazilian, make sure that appointments are made at least two weeks in advance. Confirm your appointment once you have reached your destination . The typical working day in Brazil is 8:30am to 5:30pm with an hour lunch break depending on the size of the business . The bigger business and corporations tend to stay open later and open on Saturday’s . If an individual is ever asked to attend dinner, arrive thirty minutes late .
Gender role is different in every nation. Gender roles in Brazil are different because they are determined by race, social class, and the place of residence . The higher the classes of women the better occupational choices are allotted. Although women are very successful in Brazil, men still are viewed as the sole providers . Women are allowed to seek employment, but they are still responsible for the household duties as well . Statistics show that in Brazil, forty percent of women works outside the home, two percent hold executive positions, and seventy percent are employed in low paying domestic jobs such as farming and factory work .
Class plays a major role in Brazil. The middle and upper class are known to hire members of the lower class such as maids, drivers, and nanny’s . The class system also affects the pay scale which makes it nearly impossible to move up in classes . Although laws have been passed so that companies and corporations cannot discriminate due to race or sex, it is still a major problem in the workforce . Women make up approximately forty percent of the workforce and due to discrimination; they are the lowest paid .
Gender roles in Brazil are known as machismo. Machismo means men have authority and strength and women have weakness and subservience . Brazil is known to have double standards. Men are supposed to demonstrate their virility through premarital and extramarital sexual escapades while the women are supposed to be true to themselves and save themselves for marriage . Brazil is made up of classes and castes systems. The economy is made up of high or well educated, middle, or low class individuals . The middle class is made up of 1/5 the entire population .
Brazil is known for their unique cuisines. Rice, beans, and manioc are the most common foods in Brazil . Brazil has a mid-day multicourse meal. This meal consists of pasta, meat, or fish. Typically these dishes are served with rice, beans, or manioc. The meal is finished off by dessert or fruit with coffee . Their midday meal is known to the United States as lunch . Brazilians prefer beer, soft drinks, or bottled water as their beverage of choice with their meals .
Agriculture in Brazil was my last interest of research. The major crops of Brazil are sugarcane, soybeans, oranges, coffee, cocoa, rice, wheat, beef, and cotton . The economy is growing so rapidly that agriculture cannot keep up. Agriculture is only responsible for thirteen percent of the gross domestic products in Brazil . There are about five million farm workers in Brazil .
Technology is a key essential in Brazil. The demand for IT products and services is projected to increase to over six percent which in return will make Brazil on the best performing IT markets globally . The Business Monitor International has projected that due to the upcoming events such as the Olympics, technology products will rise . Brazil is also known for being the most promising regional markets for cloud computing .
Integration of Elements and Dimensions Communication is integrated by locals conducting business in Brazil through converted barriers that allow the business to be conducted . Women conducting business in this region greet others by touching cheeks and kissing into the air and men shake hands and use good eye contact . Brazilians enjoy incorporating music into their business practices for a more relaxed setting. Also, they tend to enjoy joking, informality, and friendships . When communicating with a Brazilian, a good conversation piece is soccer, family, or children. Never bring up politics, religion, or poverty; these topics tend to put a bad taste into the Brazilians mouth since they are very sacred issues . When integrating the elements and dimensions of Brazil religion is not mentioned. Religion is considered private and is not mixed with business . It is considered disrespectful of individuals to bring religion up in a conversation while conducting business with people from Brazil . Brazil takes religion seriously and does not want it involved in the business part of life. Due to business people of Brazil wanting a more relaxed environment, it is ethical to respect their values by not mentioning religion while in their presence. Ethics are part of every business aspect throughout all nations. Brazil is considered to be a high power distance nation . Brazil business men and women are expected to conduct business through the chain of command. This nation views its corporate or business world as a sense of power. All aspects of the country such as social class, status, identity, race, and gender are faced with power struggles . Women and darker colored people are at the bottom of the totem pole.
Brazil versus United States
The GDP of Brazil is ranked tenth compared to second of the United States Brazil is known for its abundant source of bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, and hydropower. The United States is rich with coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, and timber. The United States consists of the largest coal reserves in the entire world.
The government in Brazil compared to the United States is similar. Both governments consist of three branches executive, judicial, and legislative . The United States and Brazil have a law that each president is allowed to serve only 2 consecutive terms in office. Also, each president serves a term of four years and then there it is an election year . Brazil has several political parties the Workers’ Party (PT), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB), Democrats (DEM), Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and several other parties . The United States consists of two major parties republican and democrat, but there is also an independent party.
Communication between the United States and Brazil are similar and different in many ways. Brazil consists mainly of high context communication types where the United States consists of low context . Brazil prefers implicit language and interprets most general information from the context instead of the code used . This nation also alludes to shared experiences in communication . Brazil employs in ambiguous communication to convey emotional responses . Also, a business person of Brazil expects individuals to follow the appropriate guidelines while doing business interactions.
The United States is known as a low context culture. This nation has values that are demonstrated clearly, the language is neutral, and interprets information through the actual code . Also, the United States is known to avoid allusions and connotations while communicating in a business setting . Business people in the United States prefer to do business and communicate in precise languages that describe the fact, technique, or expectation clearly . The United State tends to be more strict and to the point when conducting business. They like to follow a schedule so they have a general idea of how and when things will take place .
In comparison to the United States being ranked third in the world with 63,188,000 Catholics, Brazil is ranked first with 147,386,000 Catholics . Brazil has 133% more than the United States . United States has 52% Protestant, 24% Roman Catholic, 2% Jewish, 1% Muslims, 10% other, and 10% none according to the 2002 Census . Brazil is made up of 73.6% Roman Catholics, 15.4% Protestant, 1.3% Spiritualist, 1.8% unspecified, and 7.4% none according to the 2000 census .
Ethical behaviors are taught throughout both United States and Brazil. Brazil takes a more collectivism approach where the United States takes an individualism approach . Collectivism in the Brazilian culture refers to extended families, loyalty to the group, group census, omission of truth, confrontation is not desirable, no is substituted as well or maybe, and group identity is emphasized . Individualism in the United States culture refers to a nuclear family, loyalty to one’s own goals, personal opinion, omission of truth equals dishonesty, confrontation is considered healthy, no means no, and identity based on individual characteristics .
In United States and Brazil social status defines an individual in more ways than one. Both nations have high, middle, and low classes . There are different power distances between the United States and Brazil. Brazil is considered high power because they believe that individuals have their own specific place in society and that authority figures should not be challenged . Also, an individual’s status can be used to gain anything desirable . The United States has adopted a low power distance .
Individuals in the United States believe that it is imperative to reduce inequalities within different social classes . Also America is strong on pushing individualities such as challenging authority figures, and encouraging active experimentation in children . The United States only uses the powers that they have in order to gain things that can be legitimized . Brazil abuses the powers that they have gained through social statuses and race. Another key factor about inequalities in the workforce is that due to the lack of money received through work, it is very difficult to climb the social latter to another class.
Discrimination is an issue in the United States more so than in Brazil. In both nations, individuals are discriminated against because of their skin color, but in Brazil that is typically how a person is identified into their social class . In Brazil, individuals with darker complexions have a social disadvantage. In the United States people of any nationality with a profound education level can hold executive positions and have a successful career regardless of the shade of their skin . According to the 2012 Census report of the United States, 223.6 million white, 38.9 million African American, 2.9 million American Indian and Alaska Native, 19.1 million other . Brazil’s race is characterized differently. Whites who are of Portugal, Italy, Germany, and Spain descent make account for 50 in 100 Brazilians . Dark Grey’s or mixed account for 43 in 100 Brazilian’s . These people live near the Amazon River. Blacks account for 6 in 100 Brazilian’s . The majority of black people in Brazil are descendants of the Guinea Coast and others are from Congo, Angola, and Mozambique . Yellow skinned people and Indians account for 1 in 100 Brazilians . In the dispute over racism it is apparent that the whites are more populated in Brazil and in return have higher education levels and tend to be wealthier . United States is known for their “one drop” policy that means that any individual that has African ancestry is classified as Black . The difference between Brazil and the United States is that in the United States the men and women are both the bread winners in the family . Brazil and the United States signed the Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and Promote Equality . This plan requires that the United States and Brazil work hand in hand in fighting discrimination and implementing the education systems, law enforcement, labor, health, and other business practices to stop discrimination. Brazilian food system is about one fifth of the United States food system . The United States is a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement and Brazil is a member of the Southern Common Market . The United States has a variety of foods available compared to Brazil. The majority of foods that are common in Brazil can be found in the United States. The United States has chosen some of the cuisines that are abundant in Brazil. Agriculture practices in both nations are similar. Agriculture accounts for six percent of GDP in Brazil . The agriculture growth in Brazil is ranked fortieth and the United States is ranked fifty-seventh . Statistics show that arable land in the United States is ranked second and Brazil is ranked fifth . Arable land is land that is defined by the FAO and land under temporary crops, temporary meadows, pastures, or land under market or kitchen gardens . Both nations grow corn, rice, cereal products and cotton. Agriculture in Brazil threatens the retail food service . Farming is considered to be a substitute to the retail food market because the farmers feed their crops to their families instead of purchasing food .
The food production index found that Brail is ranked tenth and the United States is ranked eight first . Statistics show that Brazil is ranked at seven times more than the United States in labor share . The meat production of both nations is a close competition. United States is ranked second and Brazil is ranked third in overall meat production in the world . Brazil is the world’s largest producer of sugarcane, coffee, tropical fruits and FCOJ . Also, Brazil’s commercial cattle herd is fifty percent greater than the United States . Due to the demand for new technology, Brazil it is partnering with companies that have ties to the United States. Amazon established new data centuries in Brazil and is also offers web access to the United States . Also, Toshiba opened a joint venture with Brazil calling it STI Semiconductor Design Brasila . HP is a U.S. consulting firm that took over the competition in 2010, gaining significant growth in the Brazilian market . The strengths of the mobile market benefit from healthy competition in Brazil . The biggest downfall for Brazil would be that a vast majority of remote areas still do not have telecommunication infrastructures . United States and Brazil have strong ties in the government .
Implications for American’s desiring to conduct business in Brazil The United States and Brazil are reaching implications to better the relationship between the two nations. The United States is offering 50,000 Brazilian secondary and post-secondary students that are selected by the Brazilian government to attend exchange programs in the next five years. Brazil and the United States are also teaming up to support programs that intend to increase food security, health, and women’s rights . The U.S. is a major player in the business world of Brazil. The United States is one of the top investors in Brazil with investing $56.7 billion from FDI to Brazil stock in 2009 . In 2011, President Obama and President Rousseff sign the Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation that will better trade cooperation between the United States and Brazil . Brazil is the tenth largest trading partner with the United States with having the surplus over $11 billion in 2010 . Statistics show that Brazil is the eighth largest export market with the United States in 2010 . The top exports between the United States and Brazil in 2010 were machinery ($7.2 billion), aircraft ($4.4 billion), electrical machinery 9$4.3 billion), mineral fuel ($4.2 billion), and organic chemicals 9$2.0 billion) . Statistics also show that Brazil was the eighteenth largest supplier to the United States in 2010 . The five largest imports were mineral fuel and oil ($7.9 billion), Machinery ($1.7 billion), iron and steel ($1.4 billion), spices, tea, coffee ($1.1 billion), and wood pulp ($948 million) .
When doing business with Brazil, it is imperative to have a translator if you are not fluent with Portuguese language . Make sure not to speak Spanish because this can be considered an insult in their nation . Understand that Brazilians use emotions when speaking. Also, Brazilians first like to generate a relationship before conducting business . Finally, body language is imperative when conducting business in Brazil . When doing business nonverbally, follow up with a phone call . Dress attire is imperative when conducting business in Brazil. Although the meetings are relaxed and sometimes casual, dress conservatively . Brazilian’s judge individuals by their appearance, it is important to make sure that you are dressed for the occasion . Men are expected to be conservative with dark colored business suits; generally three pieces represent an executive level . Women in the business side of Brazil are expected to wear suits or dresses. Also, women are expected to have manicures and look elegant at all times .
There are things that should not be done while conducting business in Brazil. The most important business tip to remember is never showing feelings, frustrations, or impatience because in the Brazilian culture they are in control . Also, make sure that if negative advice or information is given, make sure to do it in private so the businessman is not humiliated . It is considered unprofessional to mix religion with business in Brazil . Maintaining eye contact is another important aspect of the business world in Brazil . Hugging and patting on the back are common practices used for Brazilian’s to greet men when conducting business . When giving a gift never gives purple or black, this represents mourning . Always make sure to bring a gift of some sort when invited to someone’s house .
Conclusion
This paper summarizes Brazil in a nut shell. Brazil is a nation that is highly respected. This model nation plays an important role in exports and imports with the United States. It ranks higher than the United States in several categories. When comparing the two nations, they are very similar but yet very different. The United States compares to Brazil in agriculture, cultural diversity, government, and values.

References
Abagond. (2007, September 15). Race in Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Abagond: http://abagond.wordpress.com/2007/09/15/race-in-brazil/ This article gives a general oversight to the races that make up Brazil. Brazil is a naton that consists of many races. It is common that in Brazil, people are identified by their race. This article breaks the race groups down into sections. White people account for 50 in 100 Brazilian’s. Dark grey or mixed indivuals account for 43 in 100 people in Brazil. Black are the next race and they account for 6 in 100 Brazilians. Finally, there is a race of yellows and native Indians. This race accounts for 1 in 100 Brazilians. The author did a good job breaking the different races into groups and classifying them in a manner that is not offensive.
Advameg, Inc. (2012, January 01). Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Brazil: http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Brazil.html
This article goes in depth to describe all aspects of Brazil from culture to business. The main points that are pointed out are orientation, history, ethnic relations Urbanism, architecture, use of space, food, economy, social stratification, political life, Gender roles, etiquette, and how business is conducted in Brazil. This article breaks down social class and tells how gender roles are different compared to the United States. This article can be used it give an outline of Brazil for my research project. The author of this article made sure that all known aspects of Brazil were incorporated to give the reader a general idea.
Bureau of International Information Programs. (2007, January 10). Archive. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from America.gov: http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2007/January/20070109140913HMnietsua0.1988794.html
This article gives an oversight to politics in the United States. Also, it includes a definition of the three governmental parties in the U.S. The Democratic Party, Republican Party, and third parties make up the political parties in the United States. The information gathered from this article will help with my research paper because it provides the information needed to compare political systems in the United States with the political systems in Brazil. The author of this website did a good job in explaining what the political parties are and how they work. Politics make up a major part of the United States and Brazil.
Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. (2012, November 30). Background Note: Brazil. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from U.S. Department of State: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm
This article gives a profile of Brazil. It covers everything from geography to the government. The key points in this article are the history, political conditions, technology, and agriculture. This article will help with my research paper because it gives oversight on the business side of Brazil. It also gives the information needed to compare Brazil to the United States. It has a section titled U.S. Brazilian relations which covers the political and economic agenda for both model nations. It also covers the attempts made to better Brazil through contracts between them and the United States. This article also includes other aspects of Brazil such as that it is roughly one-third of the GDP. The industries that make this a successful nation are automobiles and parts, machinery and equipment, textiles, shoes, cement, computers, aircrafts, and consumer durables.
Business Monitor International. (2012). Brazil Information Technology Report. London: Business Monitor International.
This article is about the advances in technology in Brazil. The IT services offered by Brazil are very competitive and compete with well-established vendors such as IBM, HP, and CPM. The IT business has built a relationship with Microsoft. There is even speculation’s that Microsoft has reported high interest in building a bigger and better relationship with Brazil. This article is beneficial to my research because the IT is a reason why the economy is growing. This will also allow the ability to compare with the IT in the United States. http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/pqdweb?index=0&did=2583278001&SrchMode=3&sid=1&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1333846269&clientId=20655&aid=1 CDA Media. (2012). Brazilian Communication Styles. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from World Business Culture: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Brazilian-Business-Communication-Style.html
This article explains the communication styles of Brazil. Communication is imperative when conducting business. It is also very important to understand language barriers and the different meanings of word before conducting business with Brazil. Brazilians prefer to build relationships before conducting business. Brazil is known to have a more complex level of communication then the United States. The author of this article breaks the different communication styles of Brazil into sections that can be interpreted to conduct business better with Brazil. This article is necessary for the research assignment because communication is one of the most important parts needed to conduct business internationally. Also, this article will help compare the communication practices and how they are different between the United States and Brazil.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012, April 12). South America: Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from The World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
This website contains valuable information pertaining to Brazil. It covers geography, society, government, economy, communication, transportation, military, and transnational issues. The World Fact Book is important to my research because it gives a general oversight to how Brazil works. When conducting research it is important to make sure that all information gathered is accurate and matches. This website is a reliable resource and is important in comparing Brazil and the United States. Also, it tells what types of people are in Brazil and explains their cultures. When comparing the U.S. to Brazil they both the same branches of government. The executive, legislative, and judicial are the same branches as the United States. The author of this website made sure that all information provided was correct and up to date. The Central Intelligence Agency exists in both model nations.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011, December 30). Illicit Drugs. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from The World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2086.html
The war on drugs is a problem in both the United States and Brazil. Brazil has corruption problems due to the illicit drugs that exist in their nation. This article tells what illicit drugs are and explains all aspects of them such as trafficking. Also, it contains what drugs are abundant in Brazil and how they are transported and where they grow. The Central Intelligence Agency clarifies how the drugs are linked through corruption in this document. This website will aide in the research project because it lists the drugs in both nations. This will help when comparing the problems associated with drugs between Brazil and the United States.
Communicaid Group Ltd. (2012). Doing Business in Brazil: Brazilian Social and Business Culture. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Communicaid: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Brazil.pdf
This article explains the business practices of Brazil. It informs readers on what is to be expected when conducting business with an individual from Brazil. The website also covers the religious practices. It explains the importance of understanding the cultural difference. Time is not as important to Brazil as it is in the United States. It is important after scheduling a meeting with a Brazilian that you follow up to confirm the appointment. Brazilians have a more relaxed approach to business then individuals in the United States. Also, attire and dialect are discussed. It is important to know what to wear and understand that an individual is judged on their appearance. Also, dialect refers to knowing what not to say and what subjects are expected. This website is important to the research assignment because it covers two of the main topics discussed in the paper communication and time.
Corporate Business Monitor International. (2012). SWOT Analysis. Brazil Commercial Banking Report Q2, 7-10.
This report is an analysis of the banking community in Brazil. It gives the strengths and weakness of Brazilian banking. The SWOT analysis lists some strength’s as large absolute size and continuing growth patterns. Weakness listed includes smaller banks having to give loans at low rate due to the fear of losing clients. Smaller banks are being forced into competition due to the larger banks gaining the customers through better deals. This report will help with the research assignment because it gives an insight on how the banks are handling problems. Also, it states the challenges that are faced by the banking corporations in Brazil. This article also includes basic information on all aspects of banking in Brazil.
Country Watch. (2010). Political Conditions. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Political Overview: countrywatch.com
The article outlines the political part of Brazil. Politics are a part of every nation. Politics in Brazil have some of the same characteristics as in the United States. This article will help with the research assignment because it gives the necessary information needed to understand politics in Brazil. Also, this article gives enough information to compare politics between Brazil and the United States. The author catches the point that was intended by going into details and giving a general idea of politics and what levels consist in politics. There are several similarities about politics in both nations that the author points out.
Ferguson, C. (2007, May 01). Comparing Brazilian Culture to American Culture. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Helium: http://www.helium.com/items/309995-comparing-brazilian-culture-to-american-culture
This article compares the culture of Brazilians to the cultures of American’s. Each culture has their own values that are distinguished through their business practices. This article discusses how Brazilian’s have power distances and like to be in control of all situations at all times. Also, it covers how social status affects business practices. Another key point that is discussed in this article is that the business aspects are very different in the United States compared to how business is conducted in Brazil. This article will help with the research assignment because it gives the information needed to compare practices in the United States and Brazil. The author covers all the necessities needed to understand business practices and that it is important not to disrespect a Brazilian businessman.
Global Advice Network. (2011, December 01). Brazil Country Profile. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Business Anti-Corruption Portal: http://www.business-anti-corruption.com/country-profiles/latin-america-the-caribbean/brazil/
This article is valuable in my research because it gives an overview of the financial problems in Brazil and how the recession of Europe and the United States will affect Brazil. It tells about the plans that have been enforced to make sure that Brazil’s economy continues to flourish and grow. Also, it contains valid information on how investments have increased foreign and domestic which is helping secure monetary value for the economy due to the recessions of other nations. This author also provides the information needed to compare the problems with politics in the United States and the economy to the lack thereof political scandals Brazil. It also informs that Brazil is prepared for any stepping stones that may arise relating to politics and how they are protected monetarily.

Kwintessential. (2011). Intercultural Management- Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Kwintessential: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/brazil.html
This article gives an insight on business practices in Brazil. It tells the roles of managers and how the chain of command is an important business step to success. It lists communication and negotiation styles. It also points out that it is important to understand that respect is a large part of the business world. Also, those relationships are clearly defined and strictly followed through the management roles in Brazil. This article is an important part of my research because it pertains to conducting business in Brazil. The author made a clear and valid point on how to conduct business in Brazil and what is expected.
Kwintessential. (2012). Brazil- Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Brazil: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/brazil-country-profile.html
This article explains language, culture, customs, and etiquette practices in Brazil. Facts and statistics such as Brazil is 80% Roman Catholic and that ethnic make-ups consist of Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish, white, and blacks. It gives an insight to the different language practices. Etiquette and customs in Brazil are important to know before conducting business. This article tells about meeting etiquette, gift giving, and dining etiquette. This article will help with my research project because it gives a scenario of what to expect and how to act when dealing with Brazilian’s. The author explained all the necessary steps that need to be taken to respectfully complete a successful business deal in Brazil.
Marchisio, M. (2004). The Food Industry in Brazil and the United States: The Effects of the FTAA on Trade and Investment. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Inter-American Development Bank: http://www.iadb.org/intal/aplicaciones/uploads/publicaciones/i_IECI_WP_07_2004_Azevedo_Chaddad_Farina.pdf
This article explains the food market in Brazil. It states that there has been a decrease in the market growth due to agriculture practices. The families are growing their own crops instead of purchasing them at a market. The market also, plays a part in the exports business in Brazil. Several crops and cattle are sold internationally. This article will help with the research assignment because it gives an overview of how the market works. It includes statistics to compare to the United States. The author covered all the key points of how the market business in Brazil is operated.
Market Line. (2012). Food Retail in Brazil. London: Datamonitor Plc.
This article is beneficial to my research project because it gives an understanding of the culture referring to the food. Food is a major part of an economy and this profile outlines the food business in Brazil. In order to understand an outside nation, a person must learn an insight into all the aspects of the nation. This profile describes the progress of the market and the value that it provides to the nation. The food industry grew to an average greater than $408.8 billion in 2011. Also, Brazil is responsible for approximately 23.4% of America’s food industry. The profile can be used to compare the retail food industry in the United States to Brazil. The retail food industry plays a major role in both nations. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d09954f5-99ce-4dee-b05d-c4f1298c6730%40sessionmgr115&vid=6&hid=125 Nation Master. (2012). Agriculture Stats: Brazil vs United States. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Nation Master: http://www.nationmaster.com/compare/Brazil/United-States/Agriculture
This article compares agriculture practices between the United States and Brazil. Agriculture is a major part of both model nations. Agriculture practices that are shared between both nations are cattle, corn, soy beans, cotton, and rice. Also, it gives definitions all the elements and key facts listed on the document. It also gives statistics comparing Brazil to the United States on all agriculture practices implemented in both nations. This article gives the statistics needed to compare Brazil to the United States and will be important in my research. The author explains and compares all parts of the agricultural fields in both nations and gives valid information.
Nation Master. (2012). Religion stats. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Nation Master: http://www.nationmaster.com/compare/Brazil/United-States/Religion
This website lists the statistics on religion in Brazil and the United States. Both nations consist of Catholics, but Brazil is ranked first in the entire world. It lists the known religions in both nations and gives a percentage of how many exist. This website is important to my research assignment because the information can be used to give the statistics of each religion. Also, the information provided can be used to compare the different religious beliefs between the United States and Brazil. This website is well constructed and lists the majority of the information needed on religion in Brazil and the United States.
Nations Master. (2012). Natural Resources. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Geography Statistics: http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/geo_nat_res-geography-natural-resources
This website gives a list of all the natural resources found in Brazil and the United States. Natural resources that can be found in Brazil are bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, and timber. Natural resources that can be found in the United States are coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, petroleum, natural gas, and timber. The information gathered from this website are beneficial to the research assignment because it gives a detailed list of the natural resources found in each nation. Also, it allows the comparison of the natural resources between the nations.
Serpa, M. d. (2005). Interpersonal Communication. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Ell Assessment for Linguistic Differences vs. Learning Disabilities: http://www.ldldproject.net/cultures/brazil/differences/interpersonal.html
This website gives an overview of the difference between the United States and Brazil. It contains the differences in femininity versus masculinity in both nations. It also contains the differences between high and low power distance in both nations. Brazil is considered a high power distance and the United States is considered to be low power distance. The power distance refers to how authority is perceived in both nations. Also, the website compares the different cultures. Brazil is considered to be collectivism while the United States is considered to have a culture of individualism. This article is important when comparing the differences among both cultures. The author defined the differences completed the intentions by comparing the two nations in depth.
Taylor, S. (2012). Brazil Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Internation Business Center: http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/brazil.htm
This website gives an overview on how communication should be conducted in Brazil. Brazil has certain standards that are expected when visiting their nation. Etiquette is an important factor when conducting business in Brazil. Brazil compared to the United States is the opposite when it comes to how business is conducted. The United States is more formal and on a schedule where Brazil is more relaxed and cares more about building a relationship that will last. Brazil holds high standards on being in charge and does not like to be disrespected or embarrassed. This website is helpful in my research because it breaks down how business practices are conducted in Brazil.
United States Agency of International Development. (2011, May 24). Mission, Values, And Principles. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from USAID Brazil: http://brazil.usaid.gov/en/node/5
This article gives a list of missions, values, and principles expected while conducting business in Brazil. Individuals that are planning on conducting business with Brazil should know all the standards and ground rules which are expected by Brazilians. This article lists ground rules expected of every businessman doing business in Brazil. The ground rules consist of setting an example, practice the “9 point”, be pro-active, are results oriented, and give positive feedback. The values that are expected consist of ethics, honesty, transparency, loyalty, and accountability. This article is important to my research because it sets out all the guidelines that should be followed and know when conducting business.
United States Trade Representative. (2011). Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Office of the United States Trade Representative: Executive Office of the President: http://www.ustr.gov/countries-regions/americas/brazil
This website is produced by the office of the United States Trade Representatives. It compares the investments, initiatives, exports, and imports between Brazil and the United States. It points out important facts such as U.S. goods and services trade with Brazil totaled $64 billion in 2009. It also covers exports by stating the Brazil was the United States’ 8th largest goods export market in 2010. The information in this article will help with the research project because it gives statistics and an overview of the trade business between Brazil and the United States. The creator of the website made sure to incorporate all the key components of the trade business between the two nations. Also, they made sure that all the information provided had statistics to support their claims.
US Census. (2011, March 24). 2012 Census Shows America 's Diversity. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from United States Census 2010: http://2010.census.gov/news/releases/operations/cb11-cn125.html
This website shows the diversity among individuals in the United States. Diversity is a part of every nation including both Brazil and the United States. The United States consists of 223.6 million whites, 38.9 million black, 14.7 million Asians, and 2.9 million American Indian or Alaska Native. This website contains the race distribution statistics and how each diverse race is growing in population. This website is essential in my research because it gives detailed break downs of all the nationalities in the United States. It also covers the growth rates and how they are geographically disbursed throughout the nation. The creator of this website collected all the needed information from the 2010 Census.
Viklund, A. (2007). Business Relationships. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from B for Brazil.... : http://www.bforbrazil.com/relation.html
This article covers the necessities needed to conduct business with Brazil. It explains how Brazil focuses on the relationship first and then implements the deal. It gives a breakdown of how to handle social interactions. It also explains what to expect when building a relationship with a business partner in Brazil. This article will help with my research because it gives a general idea of the business practices in Brazil. Also, it prepares an individual for what to expect when visiting Brazil. The author of the website gave a detailed summary of what to expect along with how to conduct business.

References: Abagond. (2007, September 15). Race in Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Abagond: http://abagond.wordpress.com/2007/09/15/race-in-brazil/ This article gives a general oversight to the races that make up Brazil Advameg, Inc. (2012, January 01). Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Brazil: http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Brazil.html This article goes in depth to describe all aspects of Brazil from culture to business Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. (2012, November 30). Background Note: Brazil. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from U.S. Department of State: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm This article gives a profile of Brazil Business Monitor International. (2012). Brazil Information Technology Report. London: Business Monitor International. Central Intelligence Agency. (2012, April 12). South America: Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from The World Fact Book: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html This website contains valuable information pertaining to Brazil Corporate Business Monitor International. (2012). SWOT Analysis. Brazil Commercial Banking Report Q2, 7-10. Country Watch. (2010). Political Conditions. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Political Overview: countrywatch.com The article outlines the political part of Brazil Kwintessential. (2011). Intercultural Management- Brazil. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from Kwintessential: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/management/brazil.html This article gives an insight on business practices in Brazil Market Line. (2012). Food Retail in Brazil. London: Datamonitor Plc. Viklund, A. (2007). Business Relationships. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from B for Brazil.... : http://www.bforbrazil.com/relation.html This article covers the necessities needed to conduct business with Brazil

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