National Security Strategy & Policy
National Security Strategy & Policy – Basic Concepts
1. In order to understand the concept of National Security Strategy & Policy (NSSP), it is pertinent to understand certain fundamentals. They are: a. Concept of nation-state in its universal application and more so its relevancy to Pakistan b. National Purpose (NP), a statement of resolve and determination for which a Nation – State aspires to exist. c. Determination of National Interests (NI) for which and Nation-State vows to live for d. A general view of Elements of National Power (ENP), the factors which provide requisite force to determination of NIs. e. Based on the above, formulation of NSSP is done by the government and disseminated to all concerned for further action. The latter is in the form of document essentially outlining major national security concerns and the government’s plans to deal with them. 2. National Security is the requirement to maintain the Survival of the State through the use of Economic, Diplomatic, Power Projection and Political Power. Another definition of National Security is, “Freedom from foreign dictation.” Yet another definition is, “National Security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience, economic structure, and capacity, technological competence, industrial base, and availability of natural resources, and finally the military might”. 3. It would be interesting to know that only a handful of countries (USA,UK, Australia, India, France etc) have undertaken a formal effort of formulating NSSP and then disseminating to general public in addition to their Legislators. The leading country in this regard is USA which puts up NSSP almost every two years. Pakistan has also started formulating NSSP since 9/11 but it being classified ‘Top Secret’ has authorized revelation only. It is essentially kept away from the public eyes. The US documents describes the National Interests very succinctly and are deliberated within the Congress as well as by the Intelligentsia. The latter includes Defence Institutions, Think Tanks, and Universities. A comprehensive document is released by the US State Department displaying resolve and commitment of the US Administration ensuring their maintenance or achievement. The strategy includes use of elements of national power of USA by the designated forces in all spheres of life be they diplomatic, economic or military singly or combined. For example, The US President on 26 May 2010 through US National Security Policy and Strategy Document replaced Islamic radicalism with terrorism and enunciated following strategic interests / objectives: f. Increased engagements with Russia, China, and India g. Nuclear Non-Proliferation & Climate Change
h. Reviving Economy
4. The Elements of NS / Power of a country are her Military, Economy, Resources including natural resources, Borders/ Coastlines, Demography, Disaster Management, Energy Resources, Geostrategic Position, Information Technology, Food Security, Health, Education, Ethnic Homogeneity, Environment, and Cyber Security. How well a country uses its resources depends upon its Leadership and the enabling environment. CONCEPT OF NATION-STATE
5. While the terms country, state, and nation are often used interchangeably, there is a difference. A State (note the capital "S") is a self-governing political entity. The term State can be used interchangeably with country. A nation, however, is a tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture. A nation-state is a nation which has the same borders as a State. An independent State (196 independent countries or States around the world): i. Has space or territory which has internationally recognized boundaries (boundary disputes are OK). j. Has people who live there on an ongoing basis.
k. Has economic activity and an organized economy. A country...
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