THE DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS
Michael E. Porter
Working Paper 18249 http://www.nber.org/papers/w18249 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH
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The authors would like to acknowledge invaluable guidance from Antonio Ciccone, and essential data analysis by Rich Bryden. Albert Bravo-Biosca, Aart Kraay and Giuseppe Iarossi offered very helpful suggestions. We are also grateful to the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Network team, and the participants in the seminars at the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank,
Orkestra, Temple University, BI Norwegian Business School, Tsinghua University, Drexel University,
Lehigh University, and MOC faculty workshop for very helpful comments. The authors at various times made compensated presentations at meetings that focused on issues of national competitiveness, using the data and results presented in the enclosed paper. This work was funded in part by the World
Economic Forum. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
NBER working papers are circulated for discussion and comment purposes. They have not been peerreviewed or been subject to the review by the NBER Board of Directors that accompanies official
© 2012 by Mercedes Delgado, Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. All rights reserved.
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The Determinants of National Competitiveness
Mercedes Delgado, Christian Ketels, Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern
NBER Working Paper No. 18249
JEL No. O12,O47,O5
We define foundational competitiveness as the expected level of output