top-rated free essay

narratives

By chananamehak Jul 15, 2014 1855 Words
Narratives
A narrative is any account of connected events, presented to a reader or listener in a sequence of written or spoken words or in sequence of pictures. A narrative is a story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of writing, speech, poetry, prose, pictures, song, motion pictures, video games, theatre or dance) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. The word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative. An important part of narration is the narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a process called narration. Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art and most works of literature, tell stories; indeed, most of the humanities involve stories. When we think of narratives, we usually think of it as art, however modest, we think of it as novels or sagas or folk tales or , at least , as anecdotes. We speak of a gift for story telling. But as true as it is that narrative can be an art and that art thrives on narratives, narrative is also something we all engage in , artist and non artist alike. We make narratives make times a day , everyday of our lives. And we start doing so almost from the moment we begin putting words together. As soon as we follow a subject with a verb , there is a good chance we are engaged in narrative discourse. “I fell down”, the child cries, and in the process tells her mother a little narrative, just as I have told in this still unfinished sentence a different, somewhat longer narrative that includes the action of the Childs telling. We could slow the whole sequence down simply by adding details , and in the process, we would have expanded time. “the child feel down. After a while she gets up and ran, until at last , seeing her mother, she burst into tears. “I fell down” she cried. There ,”said her mother .”that must have hurt”.” Expanding it more

“the child fell down. she sat where she had fallen, her eyes frightened, her lower lip trembling. She rubbed her knee. Was it bleeding? No, but the skin was scrapped. Where qas her mother? Carefully , she got to her feet and started running..” Expanding it even more

“there , there ,” said her mother, “that must have hurt “.In the following months, the child fell often. But slowly she acquired confidence and eventually stopped falling altogether. In deed , as a young woman , the assurance of her gait would command attention whenever she entered a room full of people _ people who would have found it hard to imagine that this was once a little girl who fell down all the time. FORMS OF NARRATIVES

Captivity narrative — the protagonist is captured and describes his experience with the other culture Epic poem – a lengthy story of heroic exploits in the form of a poem Fable – a story that teaches a lesson, often using animal characters that behave like people Fantasy – a story about characters that may not be realistic and about events that could not really happen Folk tale – an old story that reveals the customs of a culture Historical fiction – stories about characters who might have lived in the past and about events that might have really happened in history, with some made up details and events Legend – a story that is based on fact but often includes exaggerations about the hero Myth – an ancient story often meant to explain the mysteries of life or nature Play – a story that is told mostly through dialogue and is meant to be performed on stage Quest narrative — the characters must achieve a goal. This includes some illness narratives Realistic fiction – stories that portray characters and settings that could exist in real life, as well as events that could happen in real life Short story – a brief story that usually focuses on one character and one event Tall tale – a humorous story that tells about impossible happenings, exaggerating the accomplishment of the hero News - an information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience Biography - a detailed description or account of someone's life Autobiography - a detailed description or account of the storyteller's own life. Parable - stories of the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Narrator types
First Person
1. The Protagonist
Relatively straightforward, this is a story the hero narrates. He’ll narrate the same way he talks, but with more description and perhaps better grammar. The reader is privy to all his thoughts and opinions, which means we get to know the hero faster, and often relate to him more easily. Example:

…I take up my pen in the year of grace 17–, and go back to the time when my father kept the “Admiral Benbow” inn, and the brown old seaman, with the saber cut, first took up his lodging under our roof. Jim Hawkins in Treasure Island, by Robert Louis Stevenson

2. The Secondary Character
Someone close to the protagonist, but not the main hero. The same things in the above type apply to this type, but the focus of the story moves away from the narrator. Example:
“Dr. Watson, Mr. Sherlock Holmes,” said Stamford, introducing us. “How are you?” he said cordially, gripping my hand with a strength for which I should hardly have given him credit. “You have been in Afghanistan, I perceive.” “How on earth did you know that?” I asked in astonishment. “Never mind,” said he, chuckling to himself.

Watson in A Study in Scarlet, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Third Person
Third person omniscient
This type knows all, peeking into the lives of major and minor characters, reading everyone’s thoughts. This enables the writer to explore multiple facets of the story in depth. Cornelia Funke’s Inkheart trilogy, for example. Third person limited

This type knows only what the main character, or characters, know. This is more restrictive, but increases suspense and intrigue, because the reader only solves the mystery at the same time the characters do. 1984, by George Orwell, is a good example. The following types can fall into either omniscient or limited: 3. The Detached Observer

A detached third person narrator sticks to telling the story, and never inserts his own opinions—never slips in an “I” or a “me” except in direct dialogue. You probably won’t notice voice at all. It’s fruitless to give an excerpt showing what a writer didn’t do, but Orwell’s 1984 is, again, a good example. 4. The Commentator

This type never physically enters the story, but freely adds in his own amusing commentary. Allows voice without the complication of using an existing character. Example:
The curtains of his bed were drawn aside; and Scrooge, starting up into a half-recumbent attitude, found himself face-to-face with the unearthly visitor who drew them: as close to it as I am now to you, and I am standing in the spirit at your elbow. A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens

Somewhere in Between
Or maybe the narrator isn’t a strict “third person,” but is involved in the story in some way. 5. The Interviewer
This type has collected the details of the story after it happened, such as by interviewing the characters. This lends a sense of reality to the story. Example:
It brought both a smell and a sound, a musical sound. Edmund and Eustace would never talk about it afterwards. Lucy could only say, “It would break your heart.” “Why,” said I, “was it so sad?” “Sad! No,” said Lucy. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, by C.S. Lewis

6. The Secret Character
Sometimes a narrator only pretends to removed from the story—they may refer to themselves in third person right up to the end, but will eventually be mentioned by some other character, or revealed to be a major character, even the villain, for an extra-pleasing plot twist. Example:

“Lemony?” Violet repeated. “They would have named me Lemony? Where did they get that idea?” “From someone who died, presumably,” Klaus said.
The End, by Lemony Snicket
7. The Unreliable Narrator
Usually first person, but occasionally third, an unreliable narrator has a flawed point of view. That is, the writer intentionally made him biased, misinformed, insane, etc. It’s difficult to find a single passage that illustrates this, but examples include Nelly in Wuthering Heights, by Emily Brontë, or Holden Caulfield in The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger. Read more about unreliable narrators here. –

Some of these (such as the Unreliable Narrator) are established terms, while I’ve coined many of them myself. Can you think of any other types? What type are you using in your work in progress? Types of narrative texts.

FICTION

1. Fantasy
Examples include traditional tales
like fairy tails, tall tales, legends,
and myth and contemporary
creations such as the Harry Potter
series.

Author’s imagination is not
restricted by physical
reality/natural law

Once author makes up the rules
for the imagined setting, s/he must
be consistent in following them.

Improbable setting and situations

Can have improbable characters
like animals with human
characteristics and mythical beasts;
can have more realistic characters
beside imaginative ones

Plot frequently that of hero’s
quest: hero proves worthy of the
quest (may early be fumbling and
unsure); hero encounters trials
along the way (must be wise and
courageous); hero is accompanied
by friends or mentor; hero’s
actions are to protect others from
evil; hero may question self or
become confused
about good and
bad; hear defeats evil

2.Science fiction
Speculative fiction based on
the real world with all its
established facts and natural
laws (Robert Heinlein)

May use different “laws” of
another planet, even a make-
believe planet, but laws must
be scientifically plausible and
consistent.

Story is usually an adventure
that includes travel and
danger, pursuing new
frontiers.

Contemporary problems are
projected hundreds of years
into the future:
overpopulation, pollution,
religious or racial disharmony,
political structures, scientific
advances (e.g., genetic
engineering, computerization
3.Realistic fiction
Examples include the more
specific genre such as
adventure, mystery, and
romance.

Setting realistic for the time
period

Characters are believable in
their action and have human
insight and weaknesses

4.Historical fiction
Demonstrates the characteristics of realistic fiction.
Reveals historical events but
not restricted by them.

Author may be creative
without making historical
mistakes.

Historical setting is an
authentic and integral part of
the story
NON FICTION
NARRATIVE NON FICTION

Examples include news and
magazine articles, essays, and
biographies, textbooks like
History of US

Topic is something that is true
or real.

The information is told like a
story.

The order of events is clear,
even though the information
may not be presented in a
direct chronological manner
There is an overarching, main
or controlling idea to the
piece.

The main idea is what is being
said about the topic

MEHAK CHANANA CERAMIC AND GLASS DESIGN

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Narrative Essay

    ...Narrative Essay When you write a narrative essay, you are telling a story. Narrative essays are told from a defined point of view, often the author's, so there is feeling as well as specific and often sensory details provided to get the reader involved in the elements and sequence of the story. The verbs are vivid and precise. The narrative e...

    Read More
  • Narrative Rhetoric

    ...Allison Hoover Chapter 5 notes I. Formal Components of Narrative Rhetoric II. In narrative rhetoric a story is told to make a point. In some cases the entire work of rhetoric is a story and the main point is implied. In other instances, the rhetor may use a number of small stories to make a point. In still other instances, the rhetor ma...

    Read More
  • A Narrative Analysis Of The Film The Gr

    ...A Narrative Analysis of the Film The Great Debaters and its Relationship to the Urban Debate League Movement A Senior Project Presented to The Faculty of the Communication Studies Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts By Nicholas J. Carra...

    Read More
  • narrative essay

    ...Narrative Essay A Brief Guide to Writing Narrative Essays Narrative writing tells a story. In essays the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present. When you...

    Read More
  • About Narrative Essay

    ...About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and students should take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because ...

    Read More
  • narrative vs descriptive essays

    ... Descriptive Essays vs. Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative. I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the two. I prefer Descriptive ...

    Read More
  • Narrative Technique of Wuthering Heights

    ...On Narrative Technique of Wuthering Heights A very complex element of Emily Bronte's writing technique is the narrative style she uses when alternating between the two characters of Nelly Dean and Lockwood.   Wuthering Heights is a story told through eye witness accounts, first through Lockwood, followed by Nelly. Lockwood's res...

    Read More
  • Narrative Technique of Sula

    ...sometimes moves beyond the consciousness of single, individual characters, to reveal what groups in the community think and feel. On the rare occasions when it agrees unanimously, she presents the united community's view. As in The Bluest Eye and Jazz, the community has such a direct impact on individuals that it amounts to a character. In nar...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.