Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 in Corsica about a year and a half after its attachment to France. He came from a noble family. His father, a solicitor by profession, was against the French occupation of Corsica.
Since at age of nine Napoleon was enrolled in college in France, where was instructed and was educated under the French system, however, that did not change in his Corsican temperament. Five years taught at the military college in Brien, then a year at the Military Academy in Paris. At age sixteen graduated from the Academy among the most successful in the class and was awarded with the degree of artillery Sub-lieutenant. Continued to read and deal with a lot of intensity and more specifically with the materials of the areas of strategy and tactics. At that time the riots began which later became the French Revolution. He as a fan of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, believed that political changes were necessary, but had not very clear what changes should be, because he was not familiar with the sufferings of workers. As a Sub-lieutenant he offered himself to Jacobins and for a short time became their leader. Explicitly legislated against nobles, monks and the archbishops.
In 1792 the party of his father, then under the rule of Corsican dictator Paoli, was preparing to separate Corsica from France, which was opposed by Napoleon vigorously, he mobilized the Corsicans Jacobins and occupied island of St. Stephen, so that started the civil war in Corsica. After his father's death, at age sixteen, Napoleon took all precautions and duties towards his mother and family members. When the revolution began he was only a low grade officer but educated. “The French Revolution offered several opportunities to prove his skills, notably during the 1793 siege of Toulon, but an oft-cited letter of 1795 to his brother Joseph again reveals that be felt 'little attached to life', finding himself as though 'constantly on the eve of battle.' He despaired that he would end up by not moving aside when a carriage goes by'. Fate — a force in which Napoleon often placed his trust - finally took action when Napoleon's involvement in the suppression of the 1795 Vendémiaire uprising in Paris brought him to national attention.”(Betros, 41)
His position changed when many old officers fled from France and the Republic established in positions junior officers. Napoleon made from an artillery lieutenant to a general. At the time of terror he was in remission. When he was called upon to lead a pedestrian brigade he replied "I am a cannon man". Began to progress very quickly became a battalion commander, then Brigadier commander and Brigadier General. In 1797 he was placed in charge of the military campaign that began in northern Italy that was led against the Austrians who were sworn enemies of the republican French. After several battles Napoleon broke the Austrian army and he was declared a hero. Firstly Napoleon controlled the lands from the North Sea to the Pyrenees and most of Italy. All his victories against English in Toulon and then in Italy raised him in the eyes of the world as the "impregnable". His bravery and military genius couldn’t be denied. Egyptian Campaign, Battle of the Nile in particular showed Europe that Napoleon was invincible. Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Turkey formed a new coalition against France. In 1799 the French army suffered defeat in Italy and left most of the peninsula. Main cause of this defeat were the events that took place in France. Napoleon left the army and returned to Paris under the pretext "to save the Republic". Indeed, this was one of his goals, but his main goal, in reality, was the looting of the government. The directory itself called on for help. After only a couple of months Napoleon made the coup, all directors were forced to resign and he dissolved the legislative committee.
The new government was formed - Consultation -...
Cited: The American Historical Review , Vol. 53, No. 3 (Apr., 1948), pp. 465-480
Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Historical Association
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