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For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation).
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812 Emperor of the French
18 May 1804 – 11 April 1814
20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815
2 December 1804
None (himself as First Consul of the French First Republic; previous ruling monarch was Louis XVI) Successor
Louis XVIII (de jure in 1814)
King of Italy
17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814
26 May 1805
None (himself as President of the Italian Republic; previous ruling monarch was Emperor Charles V) Successor
None (kingdom disbanded, next king of Italy was Victor Emmanuel II) Spouse
Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise of Austria
House of Bonaparte
15 August 1769
Ajaccio, Corsica, France
5 May 1821 (aged 51)
Longwood, Saint Helena, British Empire
Les Invalides, Paris, France
Roman Catholicism (see Napoleon and religions)
Imperial Standard of Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars. He established hegemony over most of continental Europe and sought to spread the ideals of the French Revolution, while consolidating an imperial monarchy which restored aspects of the deposed Ancien Régime. Due to his success in these wars, often against numerically superior enemies, he is generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time, and his campaigns are studied at military academies worldwide. Napoleon was born at Ajaccio in Corsica in a family of noble Italian ancestry which had settled Corsica in the 16th century. He trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. He rose to prominence under the French First Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France. He led a successful invasion of the Italian peninsula. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état and installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor, following a plebiscite in his favour. In the first decade of the 19th century, the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—that involved every major European power. After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states. The Peninsular War and 1812 French invasion of Russia marked turning points in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. In 1813, the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded France, forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island of Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba and returned to power, but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena. An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer, but there has been some debate about the cause of his death, as some scholars have speculated that he was a victim of arsenic poisoning. Contents [hide]
1 Origins and...
Citations: ^ a b Schom, Alan (1998). Napoleon Bonaparte (1. HarperPerennial ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 0-06-092958-8.
^ The court and camp of Bonaparte, J & J Harper, 1832, p. 17,Google Book
^ Ida M
^ The other conquest. Google Books. 1967. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
^ French Fortifications, 1715–1815. Google Books. 30 November 2009. ISBN 9780786458073. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
^ McLynn 1998, p.2
^ 2012 DNA tests found some of the family 's ancestors were from the Caucasus region; lefigaro.fr (15 January 2012)
^ Woolley, Reginald Maxwell (1915). Coronation Rites. Cambridge University Press. pp. 106–107.
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