Napoleon’s influence on Haitian Revolution

Topics: Haiti, Haitian Revolution, Slavery Pages: 10 (3709 words) Published: February 24, 2014
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Napoleon’s influence on Haitian Revolution
It is one of the most known successful slave rebellion ruled by blacks that took place between the years 1791 to 1804 in the western hemisphere. It lasted for a period of 12 years. ‘Haiti’ was renamed after the indigenous Arak name. The Haitian Revolution is the only revolution that leads to the founding of a state. Animosity grew between the African people and the whites due to racism (Geggus 45). In those years, the Haitian Revolution established Haiti as the first republic ruled by the blacks and therefore the only successful slave revolt in the history. Haiti became self governed directly from French colony. Back at the time of the revolution, Haiti was called Saint-Domingue, a French colony. Different colonies across the world, such as the islands of Saint Kitts, Guadeloupe, Marbados, and Jamaica rebelled slavery but the only revolt on Saint-Domingue succeeded in 1791. The Saint-Domingue slaves fought a lot to end slavery (Garraway 79). It consisted of 50,000 slaves , 28,000 blacks (which were both mullatos and blacks ) and 32,000 whites. Blacks who were said to be free had the ownership of one-third of the property which is the plantation, and one-quarter of the Saint Domingue slaves. However they could not practice a couple of professions for example medicine. Alongside with that it is one of the most successful revolution to achieve permanent independence . Napoleon was a French and political leader. He served as the Emperor of French from 1804 – 1815. After L’Overture defeated French forces for the first time, Napoleon got his troops back to Saint-Domingue by 1803 to reclaim slavery and colonialism secretly though his plans hardly succeeded In the year 1804 the slaves ended the slavery. It is well known that the rebellion was influenced by the 1789 French revolution which presented human rights concept , citizenship , and government participation. By the 18th century, Saint Dominigue also known as the Haiti was became one of the wealthiest colonies due to its large production of coffee, cotton, indigo and sugar cane. Planters were extremely frustrated by the French because they were forbidden to trade with other nations. The French introduced sugar cane irrigation systems and by the year 1740 Santa-Domingue together with Jamaica were worlds sugar producers. The revolution emerged a period of high slave trade at Trans Atlantic (Geggus 71). Africans and the white colonialist frequently had conflicts owing from the slaves who tried to escape. However , a few of the runaway slaves lived in the woods to escape the control. They survived by conducting raids and violence on the coffee and sugar plantation islands. Runaway slaves were called maroons therefore an effective maroon leader emerged in the year 1751 to 1757 known as Erancois Mackandal, his main role that he played was unifying the blacks resistance. By drawing the African tradition together with religion, he inspired his people. In the year 1758, the French captured Mackandal. After his death the maroons were more persistent in raids and violence. Some of the rebellion leaders that followed after Mackandol include Cristophe, Toussaint, Baukman, Biassou, Jeannot, Dessalines and Francois. The leaders helped the people to a complete success. Moreover, revolutionary movements emerged. After emerging a successful revolt in history, Napoleon Bonarte established a large expeditory force that was made of French soldiers and warships. The force was led by his brother –in-law called Charles Leclerc, in order to restore the French rule. During Napoleon Bonapartes reign he sent one of the largest colonial venture to run. The Napoleons main goal was to remove the Toussaint revolution from office. Moreover he wanted slavery restored. Within a period of two years the Haiti declared its independence and the remnants of Bonaparte ‘s who were once proud were...
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