Nanotechnology History

Topics: Nanotechnology, Molecular nanotechnology, Nanomaterials Pages: 9 (2843 words) Published: April 28, 2013
Nanoscience is a development area of science which focuses itself with the study of materials that have very small size, in the range of nano scale. The word itself is a combination of nano, from the Greek “nanos” (or Latin “nanus”), meaning “Dwarf”, and the word "Science" denotation of knowledge [1]. It is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to bring about improved nanotechnology, give importance on the nano scale connection to the fields such as science physic, medical, all kind of engineering, chemical, IT. Study of phenomena on a nanometer scale is called Nanoscience. Atoms size are a few tenths of a nanometer in diameter and molecules size are normally a few nanometers in size. Nanometer is a thrilling point on the length scale, and this is the point where the smallest man-made devices meet the atoms and molecules of the natural world. Usually nano means 10-9. Means, a nanometer is one billionth of a meter and is the unit of length that is roughly most appropriate for describing the size of single molecule. Nanometer objects are very small to be viewed with naked eye. In fact, if one wanted to observe a 10 nm sized sandstone in his hand, his eye should have to be smaller than a human hair. Anyhow the general definition of Nanoscience could be anything which has dimension less than 100 nanometer. Idea of how big is nanometer has been elaborated in Fig.1 [2].

Figure 1: A bird view of a nanometer.
Richard Feynmann (American physicist, 1918-1988) was originally who raised the first thought about nanosciences in 1959, with a talk entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” Here, Feynmann stressed about the significance of controlling and manipulating on a small scale [3]. Conversely, Norio Taniguchi (1912-1999) used the term of “nanotechnology” for the first time in 1974 in a technology production paper that created objects and features on nanometer order[4][5].

Figure 2: Richard Feynman gave a 1959 talk which many years later inspired the conceptual foundations of nanotechnology. In the 1980s, IBM Zurich scientists created the tunneling microscope, a major mark in nanotechnology growth, which allowed scientists to analyze materials at an extraordinary atomic level [6][7]. Over the past few years Nanotechnology development on research and growth has increased significantly, science has reached a main place in the society development and many consider that the speculation in Science may be the only key to a country’s future.

Nanoscience and nanotechnologies are new application to research and development (R&D) aiming to manipulate the fundamental structure and behavior of substance at the level of atoms and molecules [8]. In fact, one nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter, tens of thousands times smaller than the width of a human hair. Nanoscience is often defined as a “horizontal key,” as it can be considered an interdisciplinary field of research and it can almost change all technological sectors, leading to innovations that can contribute to facing today’s social problems [9]. 4.0 DEVELOPMENT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development (see chart below). The first era, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The second phase is introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation which we are just enter, is feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning (according to Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed.

Most of experts still insist that nanotechnology can refer to measurement or visualization at the scale of 1-100 nanometers, but a agreement seems to be...
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