Assessment of Myocardial Infarction Risk Among
Patients in a Mumbai Suburb
Anand Santosh Bhatia
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of
“DOCTOR OF MEDICINE”
UNIVERSITY OF SEYCHELLES -AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
List of Contents
* List of contents
* List of tables
* Introduction –
* Methodology –
* Results –
* Discussion and Recommendations
List of Tables
Braches Table Page
Table 1.1 BMI categories according to AHA 2006 7
Table 1.2 Cardiovascular mortality indicator MOH 27
Table 1.3 Reference value of metabolic syndrome risk
factors. AHA 2006.
Table 2.1 Reference range lab kit 2006 37
Table 3.1 Age and sex profile. 41
Table 3.2 Place of residency and gender profile. 42
Table 3.3 Life style and gender profile. 43
Table 3.4 Educational level and gender profile. 44
Table 3.5.1.A Anthropometric and gender profile. 45
Table 3.5.1.B Obesity and gender profile. 46
Table 3.5.2 Chemistry and gender profile. 47
Table 3.6.1 Cause of stress and gender profile. 48
Table 3.6.2 Behaviors of study sample after stress. 49
Table 3.7 Knowledge Attitude and Practice profile. 50
Table 3.8 Compliance profile. 51
Table 3.9.1 Chronic diseases profile. 52
Table 3.9.2 Chronic diseases profile (Relatives). 53
Table 3.10.1 BMI, gender and chemistry profiles relationships. 54 Table 3.10.2 Smoking, gender and chemistry profiles
Table 3.10.3 Diet, gender and chemistry profiles relationships. 55 Table 3.10.4 Place of residency, gender and lipid profiles
Table 3.11 Metabolic syndrome among study sample. 57
ACE\I: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor.
AHA: American Heart Association.
AMI: Acute Myocardial Infarction.
CPK: Creatine Phospho Kinase.
DM: Diabetes Mellitus.
HDL: High Density Lipoprotein.
KPA: Knowledge Attitude and Practice.
LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein.
MOH: Ministry Of Health.
SPSS: Statistical Package of Social Science.
STEMI: ST wave Elevated Myocardial Infarction.
WHO: World Health organization.
Myocardial infarction. (MI):
Myocardial infarction (MI) is multifactorial, progressive, and complex disease, means that part of the heart muscle suddenly loses its blood supply. Without prompt treatment, this can lead to damage to the affected part of the heart. It sometimes called a heart attack or coronary thrombosis. World Health Organization in 1979, state that a myocardial infarction has occurred when two of the following three criteria are met: symptoms consistent with ischemia, or decreased blood flow to the heart; changes in an Electrocardiogram; and elevated enzymes—most commonly, one called CK-MB.
In September 2000, a new, widely accepted definition of myocardial infarction was introduced—a definition developed by a joint committee of the European Heart Society and the American College of Cardiology. The most significant change is that the definition adds cardiac troponin, a protein found only in heart muscle tissue, to the measures already used to determine whether or not a myocardial infarction has occurred. Like any other muscle, the heart muscle needs a good blood supply. The coronary arteries take blood to the heart muscle. The main coronary arteries branch off from the aorta. (The aorta is the large artery which takes oxygen-rich blood from the heart chambers to the body.) The main coronary arteries divide into smaller branches which take blood to all parts of the heart muscle.
The known pathological processes affecting the heart are generally classified into one of the four general categories listed below: 1. Ischemic heart diseases.
3. Congenital and valvular heart disease.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD):
Ischemia is a condition in which an organ has a blood...
References: Circulation. 2001;103:1034-1039
American Heart Association, fighting heart diseases and stroke,
Textbook of Advanced Cardiac life Support, 1991-1994.
cardiovascular diseases, San Francesco, 2006.
Donna Nagle, U.S. Department of Education, Inclusion of Obesity in
Disability Research, November 25, 1998.
XV (Part 1 of 4), September 21, 2005.
American University, 2006.
Frost & Sullivan, Nutrition Research Newsletter, Feb, 2005, abdominal
obesity and the expression of familial combined
Disease, Risk factors and Intervention. Volume one, two. 1993.
Noha. K. I. El-barbari, thesis in the factors affecting the occurrence of
diabetes mellitus type II in Nablus city, 2003
Please join StudyMode to read the full document