Nursing 231 – Task 2 2000 Word Essay
Sharon Watkins Student Number: 1065277 Word Count: 2,069
Sharon Watkins: 1065277
Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a coronary artery disease (CVD) that affects the lives of many Australians. Various genetic, social economic and environmental factors increase the risk of AMI. This essay covers CVD in Australia, the major modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that cause AMI. How the nurse’s role in managing patients at risk through planning, education and holistic environment improves patient health outcome, their ability to cope and access support. Utilising Australian Nursing & Midwifery Competency standards (AMNC) as a guide for nurses to provide quality nursing care and planning. Advantages of collaboration with other allied health professionals and organisations to assist educating AMI patients on modifiable risks enabling better management of disease, awareness of early warning signs and improve life expectancy. AMI and Risk Factors CVD risk factors studies have proven smoking, elevated serum cholesterol, obesity, elevated blood pressure and sedentary lifestyle increase risk of AMI (Brown and Edwards, 2011). National Heart Foundation of Australia’s 2010 statistic states 45,000 deaths in Australia resulted from cardiovascular disease and 1.4 million Australians are affected by CVD (“National Heart Foundation of Australia,” 2007a). Atherosclerotic plaque is the predominant cause of AMI causing arterial walls to thicken from fibrous tissues and accumulation of lipid forming atheroma plaques (Woods et al, 2010). Resulting in occluding coronary artery preventing oxygen reaching myocardium tissue causing ischaemia and necrosis (French, 2012). Lack of myocardial oxygen causes numerous conditions including CVD, coronary artery emboli, thrombus, coronary artery spasm, severe haematological and coagulation disorders, myocardial contusion and congenital coronary artery anomalies (French, 2012). Cardiovascular activity is altered by conditions affecting heart function, blood flow to organs and peripheral tissues, composition of blood and its ability to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide (Berman et al, 2012). Necrosis of the myocardium affects the hearts ability to contract and cardiac output fails. Signs and symptoms of
Sharon Watkins: 1065277
myocardial infarction vary and often include; nausea, shortness of breath, diaphoresis and chest pain that is sub-sternal and or radiating the left arm and jaw (Kowalak and Turkington, 2008) and patient will be anxious. A global increase in cardiovascular disease is direct result of evolving society that is living longer, changed working conditions, transportation, diets, social networks and sedentary lifestyles (European Society of Cardiology, 2009). Various risk factors influence a patient’s vulnerability to AMI they are modifiable or non-modifiable and significantly affect patient’s health outcome. Reducing or eliminating modifiable risk factors improves or maintains disease and health outcomes (European Society of Cardiology, 2009). Modifiable risks include smoking, obesity, diet, alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, elevated serum lipids, and hypertension. Contributing risk factors are diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, psychological states and homocysteine levels (Brown and Edwards, 2011). Diets high fats, calories, meat, refined carbohydrates, low in fibre contribute to world-wide obesity epidemic, hypertension, cholesterol levels and being overweight (European Society of Cardiology, 2009). Hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are contributing risks to MI and common in overweight people (Woods et al, 2010). Only 35% of Australians over 18 years are normal weight range (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). Obesity is caused by high caloric diets, portion sizes and physical inactivity contributes to increase body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular...
Links: Zwar, N, Borland, R, Richmond, R, Peters, M, Litt, J, Bell, J, Caldwell, B, Ferretter, I, 2011. Supporting smoking cessation: a guide for health professionals, The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners.
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