NOLI ME TANGERE
Submitted By: kiyo21 BSBA 1
Submitted To: Miss Marivic Valdez
A. What is it all about?
NOLI ME TANGERE
RIZAL was a student at the Universidad Central de Madrid when the idea of a novel of The Philippines under Spanish Colonial Rule occurred to him. In early 1884 he proposed a writing collaboration among a group of Filipinos in Madrid which, perhaps unsurprisingly, came to nothing. However, he got underway by himself and by late 1884 was about halfway through. No longer a student, he finished another quarter in Paris in 1885 and the last fourth in Germany; with the final chapters completed in Wilhelmsfield in mid-1886. Final revisions on the manuscript saw him in Berlin, ill, depressed and impoverished. Dr. Maximo Viola, a friend, financed the printing costand provided the living expences of the author. The Noli was finally finished with 63 chapters plus an epilogue and ready for printing on February 21, 1887. After a month, 2,000 copies came off the press of the printer Berliner Buchdruckrei-Action-Gesselschaft at a cost of 300 pesos. It had taken the 26-year-old author about two and a half years to complete his masterpiece, with one chapter (originally the 25th) entitled “Elias and Salome” a casualty of financial constraints. RIZAL contributed a huge rule of courage in every chapter he wrote in NOLI ME TANGERE. Rizal wrote Noli Me Tangere for a purpose, first reaching for every Filipino that moral aspect is important. Noli Me Tangere
The writing of the sequel to the Noli started in calamba in October 1887 and its completion took three years. A long and difficult birth, I’m view of his many preoccupations. Rizal may have had problems with funds, but never regard to memory. Rizal was only slightly kinder to his countrymen. It is not only a tribute to his skill as a writer but also a proof that Filipino society has not changed.
Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra or Crisóstomo, is the protagonist in the story. Son of a Filipino businessman, Don Rafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years. Ibarra is also María Clara's fiancé. Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal's reflection: both studied in Europe and both persons believe in the same ideas. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town. In the sequel of Noli, El Filibusterismo, Ibarra returned with different character and name: he called himself as Simoun, the English mestizo. María Clara
María Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as María Clara, is Ibarra's fiancée. She was raised by Capitán Tiago, San Diego's cabeza de barangay and is the most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego. In the later parts of the novel, María Clara's identity was revealed as an illegitimate daughter of Father Dámaso, former parish curate of the town, and Doña Pía Alba, wife of Capitán Tiago. In the end she entered local covenant for nuns Beaterio de Santa Clara. In the epilogue dealing with the fate of the characters, Rizal stated that it is unknown if María Clara is still living within the walls of the covenant or she is already dead. The character of María Clara was patterned after Leonor Rivera, Rizal's first cousin and childhood sweetheart. Capitán Tiago
Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitán Tiago is a Filipino businessman and the cabeza de barangay or head of barangay of the town of San Diego. He is also the known father of María Clara. In the novel, it is said that Capitán Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a good Catholic, friend of the Spanish government and was considered as a Spanish by colonialists. Capitán Tiago never attended school, so he became a domestic helper of a Dominican friar who taught him informal education. He married Pía Alba from Santa Cruz.
Dámaso Verdolagas, or Padre Dámaso is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is best known as a notorious character who speaks with harsh words and has been a cruel priest during his stay in the town. He is the real father of María Clara and an enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Rafael Ibarra. Later, he and María Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares or go to a convent. At the end of the novel, he is again re-assigned to a distant town and is found dead one day. In popular culture, when a priest was said to be like Padre Dámaso, it means that he is a cruel but respectable individual. When one says a child is "anak ni Padre Damaso" (child of Padre Dámaso), it means that the child's father's identity is unknown. Elías
Elías is Ibarra's mysterious friend and ally. Elías made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her friends. He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression. The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elías and history of his family. In the past, Ibarra's great-grandfather condemned Elías' grandfather of burning a warehouse which led into misfortune for Elías' family. His father was refused to be married by her mother because his father's past and family lineage was discovered by his mother's family. In the long run, Elías and his twin sister was raised by their maternal grandfather. When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijos de bastardo or illegitimate children. One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and subversive. Pilosopong Tacio
Filosofo Tacio, known by his Filipinized name Pilosopo Tasyo is another major character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphsand Coptic figures hoping "that the future generations may be able to decipher it" and realized the abuse and oppression done by the conquerors. His full name is only known as Don Anastacio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Sage) while others called him as Tacio el Loco (Insane Tacio) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning.
Doña Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaña, commonly known as Doña Victorina, is an ambitious Filipina who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimics Spanish ladies by putting on heavy make-up. The novel narrates Doña Victorina's younger days: she had lots of admirers, but she did not choose any of them because nobody was a Spaniard. Later on, she met and married Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, an official of the customs bureau who is about ten years her junior. However, their marriage is childless. Her husband assumes the title of medical doctor even though he never attended medical school; using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio practices illegal medicine. Tiburcio's usage of the title Dr. consequently makes Victorina assume the title Dra. (doctora, female doctor). Apparently, she uses the whole name Doña Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadaña, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname. She seems to feel that this awkward titling makes her more "sophisticated." Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio
Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio represent a Filipino family persecuted by the Spanish authorities. Narcisa or Sisa is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispín. Described as beautiful and young, although she loves her children very much, she can not protect them from the beatings of her husband, Pedro. Crispín is Sisa's 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispín to return the money he allegedly stole, Father Salví and the head sacristan killed him. It is not directly stated that he was killed, but the dream of Basilio suggests that Crispín died during his encounter with Padre Salvi and his minion. Basilio is Sisa's 10-year-old son. An acolyte tasked to ring the church bells for the Angelus, he faced the dread of losing his younger brother and the descent of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel, Elías wished Basilio to bury him by burning in exchange of chest of gold located on his death ground. He will later play a major role in El Filibusterismo. Due to their tragic but endearing story, these characters are often parodied in modern Filipino popular culture. Note: The Franciscan Order was shown by Rizal as hypocrites not because they were such during his time but because they are the most love, and has a significant numbers. Strategically, if one must attack the Spanish friars, the best is to attack the most popular during that time. -------------------------------------------------
There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli Me Tangere. Items indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in the novel. Padre Hernando de la Sibyla – a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin. He is instructed by an old priest in his order to watch Crisóstomo Ibarra. Padre Bernardo Salví – the Franciscan curate of San Diego, secretly harboring lust for María Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. It is also hinted that his last name, "Salvi" is the shorter form of "Salvi" meaning Salvation, or "Salvi" is short for "Salvaje" meaning bad hinting to the fact that he is willing to kill an innocent child, Crispin, just to get his money back, though there was not enough evidence that it was Crispin who has stolen his 2 onzas. El Alférez or Alperes – chief of the Guardia Civil. Mortal enemy of the priests for power in San Diego and husband of Doña Consolacion. Doña Consolacíon – wife of the Alférez, nicknamed as la musa de los guardias civiles (The muse of the Civil Guards) or la Alféreza, was a former laundrywoman who passes herself as a Peninsular; best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa. Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – Spanish Quack Doctor who is limp and submissive to his wife, Doña Victorina. Teniente Guevara - a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisóstomo how Don Rafael Ibarra's death came about. Alfonso Linares – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espanada, the would-be fiancé of María Clara. Although he presented himself as a practitioner of law, it was later revealed that he, just like Don Tiburcio, is a fraud. He later died due to given medications of Don Tiburcio. Tía Isabel - Capitán Tiago's cousin, who raised Maria Clara. Governor General (Gobernador Heneral) – Unnamed person in the novel, he is the most powerful official in the Philippines. He has great disdain for the friars and corrupt officials, and sympathizes with Ibarra. Don Filipo Lino – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, leader of the liberals. Padre Manuel Martín - he is the linguist curate of a nearby town who delivers the sermon during San Diego's fiesta. Don Rafael Ibarra - father of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Though he is the richest man in San Diego, he is also the most virtuous and generous. Dona Pía Alba - wife of Capitan Tiago and mother of María Clara, she died giving birth to her daughter. In reality, she was raped by Dámaso so she could bear a child.
These characters were mentioned in the novel, appeared once, mentioned many times or have no major contribution to the storyline. Don Pedro Eibarramendia - the great-grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra who came from the Basque area of Spain. He started the misfortunes of Elias' family. His descendants abbreviated their surname to Ibarra. He died of unknown reasons, but was seen as a decaying corpse on a Balite Tree. Don Saturnino Ibarra - the son of Don Pedro, father of Don Rafael and grandfather of Crisóstomo Ibarra. He was the one who developed the town of San Diego. He was described as a cruel man but was very clever. Salomé - Elías' sweetheart. She lives in a little house by the lake, and though Elías would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the chapter that explores the identity of Elías and Salomé was omitted, classifying her as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elías y Salomé was probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed as Chapter X (Ex). Sinang - Maria Clara's friend. Because Crisóstomo Ibarra offered half of the school he was building to Sinang, he gained Capitan Basilio's support. Iday, Neneng and Victoria - Maria Clara's other friends.
Capitán Basilio - Sinang's father, leader of the conservatives. Pedro – the abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting. Tandáng Pablo – The leader of the tulisanes (bandits), whose family was destroyed because of the Spaniards. El hombre amarillo (apparently means "yellowish person", named as Taong Madilaw) - One of Crisostomo Ibarra's would-be assassins. He is not named in the novel, and only described as such. In the novel, he carved the cornerstone for Ibarra's school. Instead of killing Ibarra, he was killed by his cornerstone. Lucas - the brother of the taong madilaw. He planned a revolution against the government with Ibarra as the leader after he was turned down by Ibarra. He was said to have a scar on his left cheek. He would later be killed by the Sakristan Mayor. Bruno and Tarsilo – a pair of brothers whose father was killed by the Spaniards. Ñor Juan (Ñol Juan) - appointed as foreman of the school to be built by Ibarra Capitana Tika (Rustica) - Sinang's mother and wife of Capitan Basilio. Albino - a former seminarian who joined the picnic with Ibarra and María Clara. Was later captured during the revolution. Capitana María Elena - a nationalist woman who defends Ibarra of the memory of his father. Capitán Tinong and Capitán Valentín - other known people from the town of San Diego. Sacristán Mayor - The one who governs the altar boys and killed Crispín for his accusation. Hermano Pedro, Hermana Rufa, Hermana Sipa, Hermana Juana - Some of the persons included in the Chapter 18. These persons were talking about indulgencia plenaria.
Rizal also shows the aspect of every Filipino that they can manage themselves in every way diligence. Gender discrimination in chapter 1 explains how boys silently shows quite attitude in girls, and he debate with personal appearance, Rizal also indicates padre Damaso that Ethnic groups said to Dr. Lazya that who acquired studies by themselves that’s why they called indies. Rizal introduce his primary characters in Noli, this is Don Juan Chrisostomo Ibarra Y Magsalini. Don Ibarra explains in every young citizen that new ideas come in any way may destruct the liability of possibilities. Rizal also take an observation in every place that he travels, Rizal explains that when a country has a freedom, it has the will to grow especially in environmental benefits. And El Filibusterismo takes a distance, in making steps through the indications and effects. Rizal discusses certain emotions in each movement. Ibbara see in his imaginations the happiness that he feels inside the house of Kapitan Tiyago. Tragedy remember those who had an inside lost. Rizal created Kapitan Tiyago to leap Character Rights (colonial Mentality) Ibbara follows either both high of low class of assistance whether if it’s the orders of Spaniards. In chapter Rizal also introduce growth finance in a certain country, it means a certain country has the advantage to take control over poverty. Rizal also shows the interest of Spaniards in our country, Spaniards shows on respect for terms of their interest. In each Chapter also shows that there are people who are boastful in many other ways.
Noli Me Tangere discusses how every Filipino respect their love ones who pass away. In this traditional aspect it shows how Filipinos have moral manners in their loved ones. Filipinos are honest in a way of loving and caring.
Rizal also starts to do revenge inside the heart of his father but Ibarra let go the pain with in him, but the cruelty of the death of his father is so painful to him. And in every pain in which he suffer there are a lot of dangerous thoughts. Noli Me Tangere contributes an respect moralities in each Filipinos minds and hearts, Spaniards that have fought Filipinos comes to mind that it has more than a revolution, Filipinos aspects, moral abilities with each concern to every man and women in country. Noli Me Tangere not only in freedom but in growth and abilities also to develop wide range possibilities in Hope and freedom within us. Each character in Noli Me Tangere delivers support in its variety exposure; they show different characteristics in other people, other feelings and within the values themselves. Matter in each chapter is a fact that Noli Me tangere does a supreme impact in every one of us because it explains how Filipino lives as one and in every character in chapter locates the true meaning of loyalty and sincerity to each other. Noli Me Tangere defines more than respect and politeness in everyone. Rizal dedicates Noli Me Tangere to us because it shows the true nature of each every Filipino in our nation.
I agree, I therefore conlude that noli me tangere and other writings of rizal should be apply in all aspects in life, whether in school, community and country, to all places were Filipino lived in order to remember rizal’s loyaty and devotion to our country…
D. Moral lesson
The Moral Lesson of Noli Me Tangere is love your own motherland.
The Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) inspired by the patriotic ideals of national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal, depict the abuses suffered by the native Indio’s at the hands of Spanish tyrants. The Noli paints us an ugly, yet clear picture of the so-called "social cancer" that deteriorates the society. The first of those two masterfully-crafted works, the Noli lays the most liberal, realistic and fearless view of the country's well-being during the 300-year Spanish regime. It illustrates the rotten system of governance, the illicit ways of the church and the unfavorable trade of the privilege class. The Noli also relates how the government, the church and the privilege class manipulate the people. The government deprives the youth of education and how they use the people's ignorance to their advantage. The treacherous friars by means of God and faith controlled the people, making them dummies of all sorts. In the Noli, the weak and disposed seemingly lose hope resulting to unfortunate deaths (as the case Pilisopo Tasyo) and sometimes insanity. (as the case of Sisa) Hence the oppressed formed a brotherhood that hopes to liberate the country by use of force. To no avail, due to disorganization and lack of arms, each and every attempt at resistance failed. In Noli, the character of Juan Crisostomo Ibarra was introduced, an intelligent and promising young man who has high hopes of changing the course of the country.