8.1 THE ABIOTIC AND BIOTOC COMPONENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT
1) Identify the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem ABIOTIC COMPONENTS
The non-living components.
The living organisms in the environment.
Microclimate determine the population size and distribution of the biotic components.
2) Classify biotic components into trophic levels
Grass → grasshopper → frog → snake
1st trophic level→ 2nd trophic level→3rd trophic level →
4th trophic level
3) Explain the interaction between biotic components in relation to feeding 1. The biotic components in an ecosystem interact with each other in a variety of ways. These interactions include a prey-predator situation, symbiosis, saprophytism and competition. There are three categories of symbiosis, namely, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism. Competition can be sub-divided into two categories, namely, interspecies or intraspecies competition. The figure below shows the types of interactions occurring among the biotic components.
can be defined as a close and permanent relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live and interact together for an extended period of time. The following are the three types of symbiosis:
i. Commensalism ( + , 0 )
In this type of interaction, the commensal partner benefits while the other (host) derives neither benefit nor harm. Example: - Clown fish and sea anemones
- A remora fish and a shark
- Pigeon orchids
- Barnacles on the body of a whale
Parasitism ( + , - )
Is a symbiotic relationship in which the parasite benefits while the host is harmed or lose. The parasite derives its nourishment from the host which is harmed in the process. Parasites live in or on their hosts,...
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