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Criminal justice includes the police, those working in a judiciary capacity, and lawyers who either defend or prosecute those accused of a crime (Gardner, 2010). The word criminal means a person who has committed a crime (Siegel, 2008). The word justice means just behavior or treatment; the quality of being fair and reasonable (Horton, 2007). When you put criminal and justice together, you get criminal justice which means the application or study of laws regarding criminal behavior (Siegel, 2008). There are ten professions that are involved with forensic science, but I am only interested in one of them and that is Toxicology. Forensic science can help prove the guilt or innocence of the defendant (Saferstein, 2009). Toxicologists collect data from samples of fingerprints and marks from tires and foot prints. Forensic science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system (Saferstein, 2009). Sometimes called simply forensics, forensic science encompasses many different fields of science, including anthropology, biology, chemistry, engineering, genetics, medicine, pathology, phonetics, psychiatry, and toxicology (Kane). Forensic science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action (Kane). The related term criminalistics refers more specifically to the scientific collection and analysis of physical evidence in criminal cases. This includes the analysis of many kinds of materials, including blood, fibers, bullets, and fingerprints (Horton, 2007). Many law enforcement agencies operate crime labs that perform scientific studies of evidence. The largest of these labs is run by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Saferstein, 2009). Anthropology is the study of human both past and present. To understand the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history, anthropology draws and builds upon knowledge from the social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences (Saferstein, 2009). A central concern of anthropologists is the application of knowledge to the solution of human problems (Saferstein, 2009). Historically, anthropologists in the United States have been trained in one of four areas: sociocultural anthropology, biological/physical anthropology, archaeology, and linguistics (Saferstein, 2009). Sociocultural anthropology examine social patterns and practices across cultures, with a special interest in how people live in particular places and how they organize, govern, and create meaning (Saferstein, 2009). Biological/Physical anthropology seeks to understand how humans adapt to diverse environments, how biological and cultural processes work together to shape growth, development and behavior, and what causes disease and early death (Saferstein, 2009). Archaeologists study past peoples and cultures, from the deepest prehistory to the recent past, through the analysis of material remains, ranging from artifacts and evidence of past environments to architecture and landscapes (Saferstein, 2009). Linguistic anthropology is the comparative study of ways in which language reflects and influences social life (Saferstein, 2009). Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy (Horton, 2007). Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties (Kane). Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds (Kane). Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and...
References: Gardner, T. J. (2010). Criminal Evidence. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Horton, L. (2007, January 10). History of Forensic Science. Retrieved from All About Forensic Science: http://www.all-about-forensic-science.com/history_of_forensic_science.html
Jackson, P. (2011, November 28). Toxicologist. (K. Veal, Interviewer)
Kane, S. (n.d.). Forensic Science. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from About Legal Careers: http://legalcareers.about.com/od/glossary/g/Forensic-Science.htm
Larson. (1997). Solving Rational Equations. Retrieved from Tutor Homework: http://www.tutor-homework.com/Math_Help/college_algebra/m3l2notes1.pdf
pohnpei397. (2011, August 24). Law. Retrieved from Enotes: http://www.enotes.com/law/q-and-a/what-co-conspirator-rule-274115
Saferstein, R. (2009). Forensic Science From The Crime Scene To The Crime Lab. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Siegel, L. J. (2008). Criminology. Belmont: Wadsworth.
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