1. Briefly describe at least three strategies for noise mitigation for airports, highways, or railways. Under what circumstances would you considered each to be appropriate?
-The most fertile areas for the highways noise mitigation are in urban planning decisions, highway design, noise barrier design, speed control, surface pavement selection and truck restrictions. Speed control is effective since the lowest sound emissions arise from vehicles moving smoothly at 30 to 60 kph. Above that range, sound emissions double with each five miles per hour of speed. At the lowest speeds, braking and the engine of acceleration noise dominates.
Selection of road surface pavement can make a difference of a factor of two in sound levels, for the speed regime above 30 kph. Quieter pavements are porous with a negative surface texture and use medium to small aggregates. The loudest pavements have a transversely grooved surface or a positive surface texture and use larger aggregates. Surface friction and roadway safety are important considerations as well for pavement decisions.
Noise barriers can be applicable for existing or planned surface transportation projects. They are probably the single most effective weapon in retrofitting an existing roadway, and commonly can reduce adjacent land use sound levels by up to ten decibels. A computer model is required to design the barrier since terrain, micro meteorology and other locale specific factors make the endeavor a very complex undertaking. For example, a roadway in cut or strong prevailing winds can produce a setting where atmospheric sound propagation is unfavorable to any noise barrier.
2. Describe at least three facility designed modifications that maybe used to mitigate impacts on nearby wildlife habitat. -The Wildlife Habitat Mitigation establishes mitigation goals for each category of habitat and, depending upon the importance of the habitat, identifies preferred strategies to avoid or mitigate the impact of...
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