Mustafa Kemal (March 12, 1881 - November 10, 1938), was a Turkish nationalist and political leader who was instrumental in the fall of the Ottoman sultanate and in the creation of modern Turkey, was also the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. Kemal devoted his life to freeing Turkey from foreign domination. Under his benevolent dictatorship as president of the republic, he instituted lasting reforms that earned him the name Atatürk (the father of the Turks). Kemal was born in Salonika (now Greece, but then part of Turkish Macedonia), the son of a lower middle class Turkish customs official. Ali Riza (Efendi) died when Kemal was a child; his mother was Zübeyde (Hanim).
Kemal became known as an extremely capable military officer by being the only undefeated Ottoman commander during World War I. Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire; he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His successful military campaigns led to the liberation of the country and to the establishment of Turkey. During his presidency, Kemal embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms. An admirer of the Age of Enlightenment, he sought to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern, democratic, and secular nation-state. The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established
Leaders from the beginning of time have put policies or laws into place that they felt were beneficial. Some leaders leave a legacy of dramatic change and others do not. Kemal was a leader known for change, and his reforms such as the changes to education, more rights for women and the modernization of the economy were ground breaking and made him a hero too many.
The National Assembly, which first convened on 23 April 1920, that was the first clue to the